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verified elite notetaker
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History 105 Fry- Roots of Contemporary Issues
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Woodling on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 105 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Faunce in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see History in History at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Global Drug Trade Beer September 17th 0 Beer used to be considered liquid bread and everyone drank it even children 0 Women stayed home and made beer but the Catholics later took over the beer and wine business 0 O O O O O Gin In Spain in the 16th century the average consumption was 100 liters per person per year Polish peasants drank 3 liters of beer a day In England each person drank about 17 pints a week of beer and ale English sailors would get a gallon of beer a day The English soldiers got 23rds of a gallon per day of beer ln Denmark park of their paycheck was a gallon of beer a day 0 English Parliament passed legislation to encourage the use of grain for distilling spirits O O O O In 1685 the consumption of gin had been slightly over one half million gallons In 1714 gin production stood at two million gallons By 1727 the production had reached 5 million gallons By 1733 in London alone they produced 11 million gallons of gin o The English government actively promoted gin production 0 Led to the Gin Epidemic Parliament passed legislation in 1763 to discourage consumption by prohibiting the sale of gin to quantities of less that two gallons and raising the tax on it dramatically Stopped producing as much gin o 1743 six and a half million people drank over 18 million gallons of gin o 7 million gallon in 1751 o 2 million by 1758 Alcohol 0 By the 18th Century drunkenness was more accepted o It changed even more in the 19th century and was de ned as a threat to industrial ef ciency growth 0 Problems like crime poverty and infant mortality were blamed on alcohol Spirit Drinking Hard liqueur and wasn t common unless it was medicinal Whiskey First distilled in Ireland and it was widely consumed in Scotland by the 16th Century Distilled spirit alcohol was generally avored by juniper berries and was made Gin 0 Corn Bourbon 0 Wheat Whiskey o Juniper Berries Gin 1690 0 England passed quotAn act for the encouraging of the distillation of brandy and spirits from cornquot 0 Within 4 years the annual production of distilled spirits reached nearly one million gallons The big switch from beer to hard alcohol Rum originally rumbullion First distillation of rum in the Caribbean in the 17th century Slaves discover molasses can be fermented into alcohol Europeans move there and started harvesting and growing sugar cane o It was hard to nd workers started with Indian slaves and ended up with African slaves They distilled the concentrated alcohol and removed impurities First originated on the island of Barbados By the 1620 s rum production was recorded in brazil Tbbacco Virginia Company of London London Company 0 Jamestown Virginia founded to be a tobacco growing town By 1612 John Rolfe from Jamestown perfected methods of raising and curing tobacco By 170040 million pounds were being shipped out of the Chesapeake Bay 0 Grew so much tobacco they weren t producing enough food 0 Laws that said if you don t grow enough food each year you will go to jail In 1619 the Virginia Assembly passed legislation requiring every farmer to grow hemp 0 George Washington grew hemp o Hemp was very popular for clothes and other items 0 Allowed to be exchanged as legal tender in Pennsylvania Maryland and Virginia Colonial Slavery Most slaves arrived to the colonies after 1700 1680 s rising wages in England shrank the pool of poor people During this time more black slaves were arriving in America than white servants 1698 The Royal African Company lost it s crown and granted monopoly on carrying slaves to the colonies 17001750 tens of thousands of slaves arrived in America Coffee Comes from the coast of East Africa and Egypt In 1534 Cairo religious fanatics denounced coffee 0 They thought it was evil and wanted to band coffee 0 Did not work the chief judge tried the coffee and sided with the coffee drinkers Coffee used to be very thick and very strong By the 17th century coffee made its way to Europe and was becoming very popular Opponents called it the quotbitter invention of Satanquot and in Venice 1615 the local clergy condemned it 0 Pope Clement Vlll was asked to intervene 0 He tasted it and loved it and gave it approval Arabs tried hard to maintain their monopoly In 1658 the Dutch obtained some seedlings and started growing in the island ofJava France moved the plant to Martinique and then it spread to the Caribbean and Central America 0 Stole the coffee in 1700 o Planted 18 million coffee trees on the island of Martinique in the next 50 years Between 1511 and 1886 over 1 million slaves were sent to Cuba to work on coffee crops In the major cities of England Austria France Germany and Holland coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication 0 In England they called the coffee houses quotpenny universitiesquot o By the mid17th century there were over 300 coffee houses in London 0 In 1672 the rst coffee house in Paris opened Women wanted to get rid of coffee there cause their husbands spent their time there spending money did not work People loved coffee but tea was still very popular 0 There was a tax on tea in 1773 that led to the Boston Tea Party 0 Threw all the tea into the harbor o The protests began a major shift from tea to coffee Drinking coffee was an expression of freedom 0 Before this time tea was more common and coffee was for wealthy people Opium Comes from poppy Commonly smoked very addictive 1680 Thomas Sydenham English Physician was know as a lover of opium o Promoted it like crazy and used it for almost every medicinal Was recommended for pain sleeplessness and diarrhea During the 18th century opium was found to be a goof remedy for nervous disorders Used to quiet the minds of those with psychosis help with people that were considered insane and also to help treat patients with insomnia o It was noted that in cases of psychosis it could cause anger or depression 0 Patients got more depressed after the effects wore off In 1729 China banned the importation of Opium because they began to see problems with it 0 Dutch Portuguese and English ships were trading opium to China In 1757 East India Tea Company assumed control of the major opium poppy farms in India and brought in slaves 0 They shipped it to China 0 They wanted the Chinese green tea so they traded opium to get money for it 0 Very powerful company 0 By 1793 they basically control all opium trade China introduces total prohibition of the importation and use of opium in 1799 0 Not successful because the government is not powerful enough The belief is that opium makes sex better not really true 0 This idea continued into the 20th century and people believed the sexual appeal In the beginning opium was expensive and used by wealthy people but eventually got cheaper and trickled down to peasants British really want the tea so they trade opium o Opium trade was standardized Beginning in the 19th century China struggled and everyone wanted to get out 0 Chinese immigrants went to San Francisco London and New York 0 They brought opium with them and the opium drug problem spread Chests of opium were sold in auctions in Calcutta then smuggled it into China 0 1735 they were bringing 200 chests a year 65 kg 0 1796 1000 chest a year 0 1820 4000 chests a year 0 1850 30000 chests a year The illegal sale of opium became one of the worlds most valuable single commodity trades o quotThe longest continued systematic international crime of modern timesquot In 1838 the Chinese commissioner destroyed 20000 chests of opium in Canton and threw it in the harbor o A chest of opium was worth 1000 in 1800 o The Chinese were mad at the British government but they were going to keep selling it as long as people wanted it 0 China seized British merchants and set a opium warehouse on re First Opium War 18391842 0 England wins the war Industrial power of the world Lots of weapons powerful navy China is falling apart The British made china pay for the cost of the war and kept selling opium 0 Everyone is dominating china Second Opium War 18561860 0000 0 China was forced to legalize opium and began massive domestic production Importation peaked in 1879 at 6700 tons o By 1906 China was producing 85 of the worlds opium 35000 tons o 27 of the adult male population in China used opium regularly Women weren t allowed to smoke opium 1874 The Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade 0 Led mainly by Quaker reformists the group was to be an effective force in organizing the antiopium lobby All India Opium Act of 1878 is passed and more opium is shipped to China 0 Morphine from Opium 1805 Frederick William Serturner isolated the morphine alkaloid from opium 0 He named the white crystalline substance after Morpheus god of sleep and dreams Thomas Morson begins commercial manufacturing of morphine in 1821 In 1860 Dr Wood and Dr Hunter popularize the use of the syringe in morphia treatment of neuralgia The use of hypodermic morphine for the treatment of neuralgia spreads rapidly throughout Britain continental Europe and the United States Regarded as the quotwonder drugquot and used in many ways In 1890 US Congress imposed a tax on opium in morphine because addiction problems 0 Hoped to lower the usage of these drugs William Randolph Hearst o Multimillionaire media guy that owned all kinds of tv shows and magazines 0 Published stories in his magazines about white women being seduced by Chinese men and their opium Antidrug and AntiChinese 0 He used the antiopium campaign to heighten racial fears Did the same thing 30 years later with marijuana Mexicans taking advantage of white women 0 Heroine from Morphine In 1874 CR Alder Wright decided to make a new drug from morphine that quotwasn t addictivequot called heroine Heroin was promoted as nonaddictive morphine substituted and used in coffee and cough drops and everything Bayer marketed the drug as a cure for morphine addiction Cocaine By 1903 cocaine consumption had grown to about ve times that of 1890 Became very popular among workers in factories textile mills and on railroads Fears of corruption of the youth by cocaine 1900 state legislatures in Alabama Georgia and Tennessee considered anticocaine bills A judge in Mississippi declared that supplying a negro with cocaine was more dangerous that injecting a dog with rabies In 1906 Atlanta race riot led by whites was sparked by reports of crimes committed by black quotcocaine endsquot Police in the south adopted heavier caliber handguns Alcohol Prohibition 19201933 Consumption of the alcohol declined dramatically at the start Early 1920 s consumption was about thirty percent of the pre prohibition level Consumption grew in the last years of prohibition as illegal supplies of liquor increased The main retail outlet in the prohibition period was the speakeasy As well developed housetohouse delivery system was also established There was a high degree of organization in international liquor smuggling The combination of graft and violence accompanying this industry was an important factor in the nal repeal of prohibition Marijuana In 1906 the rst restrictions for sale of cannabis in the District of Cdumbm The argument stated that o It makes you sex crazed o It made you violent and crazy o It was a gateway drug o It corrupted youth into a life of crime 1936 Reefer Madness 0 Documentary on weed 1937 Marijuana Tax Act prohibited the production of cannabis and hemp 0 Business men Andrew Mellon Randolph Hearst and the Du Pont family want hemp gone 0 So they help get rid of marijuana 0 Cause they are into timber business so they don t want hemp to ruin it Narcotic Control Act of 1956 0 Put marijuana in the same drug class as heroin and added more severe penalties o A rst conviction of possession of marijuana was a mandatory 210 years in prison 0 Second conviction for possession was eligible for 25 years 0 Third offense was a life offense Same exact consequences as murder Vietnam 0 Drug laws in Vietnam were not well de ned and their enforcement had little priority 0 Began using marijuana in Vietnam by 1963 o Arrests for marijuana possession reached as many as 1000 in a single week In 1968 Vietnamese government condemned the sale and use of marijuana They switched to smoking heroin by mixing it with tobacco cause there was no smell so no one knew o By 1970 there were 1146 arrests for hard drugs 0 1971 arrests increased to 7026 Discharged between one thousand and two thousand heroin addicts per month 0 1973 34 percent of American soldiers in Vietnam had commonly used heroin Servicemen with heroin addictions did not receive help when they arrived at home 0 August 1971 Veterans Administration hospitals handled only three referrals out of 12000 heroin using servicemen in Vietnam 0 Comprehensive Drug Abusive and Control Act of 1790 o Nixon targeted the trendy psychedelic image of illegal drugs 0 Asked Elvis Presley to help him send the message that drug abuse is unacceptable o 1973 Drug Enforcement Administration DEA Ronald Reagan and the War On Drugs 0 quotWere taking down the surrender ag that has own over so many drug efforts were running up a battle lag 1984 Nancy Reagan launches her quotJust Say Noquot antidrug campaign Cocaine importation tripled in this period AntiDrug Abuse Act of 1986 o Appropriated an additional 17 billion to fund the War on Drugs 0 Established 29 new mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenses 0 Different mandatory minimums for powdered and crack cocaine 0 quotcrack epidemicquot 1984 and 1990 o 1985 people using cocaine on a routine basis increased from 42 million to 58 million 0 Use of the drug has continued to spread throughout North and South America and into Europe and the rest of the world 0 By 2002 the UK was experiencing their own quotcrack epidemicquot o The UK reported an increase of 74 in seizures of crack cocaine in drug raids from 20002006 0 The majority of European crack cocaine users are located in three cities Hamburg London and Paris 0 Typical stereotypes of women in the drug trade Drugs and the CIA The CIA supported various afghan rebel commanders against soviet union 0 CIA provided drug lord allies with transport arms and political protection Helped Kuomintang KMT forces smuggle opium by providing airplanes from Air America 0 Iran o 0000 O IranContra Scandal Nicaragua 1979 Sandinistas over threw Somoza dictatorship US sold weapons to Iran to get hostages elsewhere released Used money to iegay fund Contras to overthrow Sandinistas CIA backed contras smuggled cocaine into the US crack cocaine CIA directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras General Manuel Noriega O O 0 Major drug lord Gave military assistance to the Contras in exchange for continuing his drug traf cking activities DEA tried to indict Noriega in 1971 and the CIA stopped them Ciudad Juarez became the most violent city in the world in 2011 Narco Terrorism 0 FARC trying to overthrow Columbia n government 0 ELN rival of FARC Hamas o Taliban 0 AUC PCP SL Drugs Today US is the worlds largest consumer of cocaine Colombian heroin and Mexican heroin and marijuana major consume of ecstasy and Mexican meth minor consumer of high quality southeast Asian heroine lllicit producer of marijuana depressants stimulants hallucinogens meth Gender A range of physical biological mental and behavioral characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between masculinity and femininity and others described as third gender Depending on the context the describing characteristics vary from sex to social roles gender roles to gender identity We de ne gender and masculinity as well as the roles of each Gender identity is the gender a person self identi es as One s biological sex is directly tied to speci c social roles and expectations Patriarchy A social system in which the male acts as the primary authority gure central to social organization Fathers hold authority over women children and property It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege and entails female subordination Many patriarchal societies are also patrilineal Hammurabi39s Code Written code dealing with legal procedure and penalties Covers all types of situations Literally set in stone ln contains no laws having to do with religion 0 This is man s law Basis of criminal law is that of equal retaliation comparable to the sematic law of quotan eye for an eyequot Mesopotamia The law offers protection to all classes of Babylonian society It seeks to protect the weak and the poor including women children and slaves against injustice at the hands of the rich and powerful Laws If a man has taken a wife and has not executed a marriage contract that woman is not a wife If a mans wife be caught lying with another they shall be strangled and cast into the water If a man has ravished another s betrothed wife who is virgin while still living in her father s house and has been caught in the act that man shall be put to death the woman shall go free If a mans wife has been accused by her husband and has not been caught lying with another she shall swear her innocence and return to her house If a mans wife has the nger pointed at her on account of another but has not been caught lying with him for her husbands sake she shall plunge into the river NeoConfucianism 9th Century A woman s duty is not to control of take charge quotWoman s greatest duty is to produce a sonquot 0 They do not want daughters 0 A woman ruler is like a hen crowing A husband can marry twice but his wife may never marry O Encouraged women to commit suicide if they re husband dies Women and the Enlightenment Perceptions of Women started to change 0 Ideas of tolerance and equality Montesquieu 16891755 0 0 Supports equality for women People are born equal 0 Jean Jacques Rousseau 17121778 0 O O O 0 Political scientist and philosopher Wrote book called Emile Thought that woman should be educated so that he could have a conversation with her at dinner Also wrote a lot about how to raise children His idea Men s Spherewordy Women s Spheredomestic Education of women Subordinate to men Pleasing to men 0 Women s sole purpose is to bear and raise children Victorian Period 18401890 Named after Queen Victoria 0 She was queen for the entire period 0 She had a very proper self image Victorians were middle and upper class Focused on self control Lived in the industrial countries 0 True capitalists and true Americans 0 There goal was moral and intellectual control Divided the world into private and public spheres True Woman chaste pure and virtuous 0 They raise the children 0 Chaste means no sex don t like sex it s only for procreation Cult of True Womanhood Domesticity o Obedient purity piety domestic Women that did not conform to the social rules were given drugs and or sent to mental asylums Needed to raise proper children 0 Women seen as weak passionate beings closure to nature 0 Women could not control themselves but need to be in control for men 0 Men need to have self control 0 Men were born into control 0 They never show emotion o If they lose self control it was a momentary weakness o It was believed that if women were educated they could die 0 They believed that women knew nothing about having babies so men took over child birth 0 If you have an abortion you re not a true woman Prostitution 0 Went up during the Victorian Period 0 Sex was very dangerous o It was okay for men to go see prostitutes o Prostitutes aren t real women Sylvester Graham 0 Food health and sex were linked If you think about sex you have to eat a graham cracker John Harvey Kellogg and William Kellogg Have a healthy diet so you don t think about sex Put people in baths of water then shock them so they don t have sex killed half a dozen people Road to Wellville was his book on about how to control sex through diet Discovered corn akes 0 Eat them every morning so you don t think of sex John Harvey died and his brother started adding sugar to the cereal and wanted people to buy the cereal 0 Didn t care about if children had sex CW post created raisin brand to control sexual urges Amelia Bloomer China In 1851 she launched a public effort in trying to change women s dress Qing Dynasty Manchu 16441911 At every level of society women were considered subordinate to men It was also widely believed that only women who lacked literary talent were virtuous Men routinely built monuments to widows who had chosen to commit suicide rather than remarry Some women were being taught to write and publish Some of cials believed that women should have an education to teach their children About 45 of the male population was partially literate In 1713 Emperor ordered that elementary schools for poor boys to be established 10 percent of females were partially literate 0 Women weren t allowed to be educated but some wealthy women were Greeks The Iliad by Homer 0 About the Trojan war and masculinity o The whole plot is the war and proving you re a man 0 Men who shun the warrior culture for some reason do not fully engage with it face being criticized or even ostracized o If you don t go to war you are not masculine you are a woman 0 Being a coward or declining an opportunity to engage in war goes against notions of masculinity o The warrior culture revolves around masculine ideas of duty honor and bravery Sparta Takes Greek masculine idea to the extreme Peloponnesus region Desired more land around 740 BCE began conquests of neighboring states 0 Those defeated became servants of Sparta Bound to land and worked for Sparta s bene t 0 7th Century BCE subject people revolted Forced Sparta to develop a military state to control them 0 Lives of Spartans were very rigid and organized 0 At birth child would be judged t or un tleft to die O O 0 Boys were taken at age 7 to become soldiers and were under control of the state Lived in barracks with harsh discipline At age 20 they were enrolled in the army Could marry at age 20 but only went home to visit they wives to procreate No family bonds they still lived in the barracks Marriage was just meant to have kids They could live with their families at age 30 Stayed in army until age 60 0 Women 0 O 0 Females are trained to be mothers Barracks lifestyle until married then went home and raised children Women were kind of masculine Women39s Suffrage Out West 0 Women in Washington were the rst to be able to vote 0 Because of beer and cows Seneca Falls Convention New York 1848 o Fist women s convention in the US 0 Advocates equal rights for men and women especially voting rights 0 Suffrage was put hand and hand with temperance Temperance no alcohol Early women s rights movements argue for voting rights to safeguard the family In the East women s suffrage and the temperance movement were tied together Not everyone likes temperance 0 quotTotal abstinence is so excellent a thing that it cannot be carried to too great an extent In my passion for it I even carry it so far as to totally abstain from total abstinence itselfquot Mark Twain In Oregon Abigail Scott Duniway pushed to separate the Oregon suffrage movement from the national movement which was closely aligned with the Women s Christian Temperance Movement 0 Her brother was very against the women s suffrage movement 0 She feared men would not vote for women s suffrage because of temperance Homestead of 1862 o 160 acres for free after ve years of improving the land 0 Women can own land but only if they are unmarried o Homesteading Farming Ranching Farming is sedentary o Raise something the crops stay 0 Use the land you live on 0 You don t get out much Ranching involves more harsh conditions 0 Forced to raise livestock o Cows run away crops do not o Husbands spend weeks or months traveling and checking up on the cattle Cause the cattle has to be moved to different locations 0 A lot of women take care of the ranches without their husbands around 0 Kate Robbins 0 Was a homesteader in central Oregon 0 Abner her husband does not return for a very long time because he went to go buy some sheep 0 She has two kids and raises them on her own as well as the ranch Joan Scott wrote Gender and Politics of History in 1989 o Differentiation meaning quotis conveyed through implicit or explicit contrastquot 0 The de ne masculine as strong not only requires that feminine be weak it also subjugates feminine to masculine o It often results in hierarchical studying Women39s Movement 0 Fight for equal rights 0 Not successful at rst 0 Women could own land 0 1870 in England 0 1900 in Germany 0 1907 in France 0 Great Britain 0 Emmeline Chritabel and Sylvia Pankhurst formed the Women s Political and Social Union 0 They would throw rotten fruit at politicians and go to jail and wouldn t stand for the Victorian period United States 0 Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 o Elisabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony Rewrote the declaration of independence and added women to it They wanted divorce rights so women could divorce their husbands Wanted property rights Equal employment and education 0 Wanted quotmen onlyquot jobs like doctors 0 Equal college education Wanted suffrage but that was only one small part voting 0 Later women s rights focused on suffrage World War I World War I actually started to change things because most men were at war so women did more work outside the home Women made more money than they had ever made before 1920 s World War II Even more men go to war Women in the military 0 Women are doing more so that the men can ght 0 Helps boost women s rights 0 Very average families with a white picket fence and a two kids 0 No drugs sex rock n roll violence 19603951970395 o Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan 0 Best seller worldwide 0 The women gets to choose is the bottom line of the book 0 1966 Friedan helped found the National Organization for Women devoted to the ght for equal rights for women 0 Gloria Steinam o Helped found the National Women s Political Caucus in 1971 Wanted more women getting involved and running for office 0 Produced MS Magazine Pushed for Equal Rights Amendments Adopted by the House October in 1971 and the senate in March 1972 Phyllis Schla y campaigned against the proposed ERA Capitalism 0 Economic system in which more of the means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets to determine how good and services are distributed 0 Private schools private police forces FedEx Brief History of Capitalism Feudal system preceded capitalism in Europe 0 Everyone owned some property or products produced on others property Most could support themselves 0 15th Century Enclosure Movement forced people off what had been pubHcland O 0 Sent them looking for work in cities Provided labor force needed for industrialization 0 18th Century Agricultural Revolution new technology 0 20th Century shifts in producers products 0 O O 0 International trade manufactured goods to capital to information Dominant actors powerful families to individuals to corporations esp banks Management top down to at org quotfamily wagequot system to nonstandard work lifelong vertical career to horizontal movement Demand for labor physical ability to quotcreative classquot Theory of Capitalism 0 Adam Smith 17231790 0 O O Wrote a book about capitalism and coined the term of the invisible hand of the market Competition driven by people s inherent selfinterest and drive to trade helps maintain a cohesive society Specialization is a key to increased productivity and innovation and that the use of money as opposed to makes trading more efficient 0 George Simmel 18581918 0 Evolution of monetary payment systems as force to depersonalize exchange Piecework Wage labor Salary 0 Saw as positive change 0 Separated public and private spheres 0 Gave workers more freedom to enjoy leisure 0 Max Weber 18641920 0 Linked rise 0 capitalism to ideas speci cally ideas and believes connected to protestant reformation 0 Karl Marx 18181883 0 Argued that capitalism created alienation Socialism Social and economic doctrine that calls for public rather than private ownership of control of property and natural resources Society as a whole should own or at least control property for the bene t of all its members 0 Pay taxes and it bene ts everybody 0 Public schools re departments city police forces US military US postal service Communism Revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless moneyless and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production as well as a social political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order Liberalism Economic theory emphasizing individual freedom from self restraint and usually based on free competition the selfregulating market and the gold standard Political philosophy based on belief in progress the essential goodness of the human race and the autonomy of the individual and standing for the protection of political and civil rights A movement in modern Protestantism emphasizing intellectual Hbe y Imperialism Expansion of colonial powers Demands of Industrial Revolution Most of the Interest in Asia and Africa Primary interest to enhance wealth and power Secondary interest to install western values and institutions By 1900 0 Almost all societies in Asia and Africa under colonial rule Ottoman Empire and China very close to collapse Trotsky Fled to Mexico 1928 Five Year Plans Soviets union became very industrial collective farming Great Purge o 1936 Included Bukharin in 1938 By 1940 Lenin s entire politburo was gone Trotsky killed in Mexico 1940 Great Depression 0 Started in 1929 0 United States hit hardest after Germany 0 President Franklin D Roosevelt s New Deal Wars 0 Cold War 0 Arms RaceMAD McCarthyism Korean War 0 Cuban Revolution 0 Cuban missile crisis 0 Within seconds of world annihilation 0 Vietnam War D tente 0 Reduced tensions between Soviet Union and US Ronald Reagan Super capitalist loosens up restrictions Trickledown effect Soviet Union 0 Evil empire AntiCommunist New arms race again 0 Strategic Defense Initiate Star Wars Mikhail Gorbachev 1985 started to change the Soviet Union Soviet Union Collapse Mismanagement of Soviet Leaders The economy never fully recovered from WWII Pressure of the US during Cold War Spending a signi cant portion of the GNP on defense instead of domestic Germans decdied to attack Damascus 0 They were only Muslim ally of the French so they said no 0 19902012 The Oslo Accords Declarations of Principles on Interim Self Government Arrangements August 20th 1993 It was the rst direct facetoface agreement between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO PLO chairman Yasser Arafat Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and US President Bill Clinton Creation of a Palestinian National Authority PNA The Accords also called for the withdrawal of the Israel Defense Forces IDF from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank July 11th 2000 0 Camp David Summit 0 President Bill Clinton Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and PNA Chairman Yasser Arafat o Trilateral Statement Roadmap for Peace The United States the European Union Russia and the United Nations Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas President George W Bush and Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon Get together and called for an independent Palestinian state living side by side with Israel in peace Jerusalem The holiest city in Jewish tradition King David of Israel rst established it as the capital of the Kingdom of Israel in c 1000 BCE King Solomon commissioned the building of the First Temple in the city In Christian tradition Jerusalem has been a holy city since Jesus was cruci ed there In Sunni Islam Jerusalem is the thirdholiest city Temple Mount 0 The Western Wall o The Church of the Holy Sepulchre o The Dome of the Rock 0 AlAqsa Mosque Crusades Seljuk Turks started to attack Egypt and the Byzantine Empire 0 Byzantine did not do well and they turned to the west for help Pope in Rome send out call to arms to ght off the Muslims Jerusalem was only place the leaders heard of so determined to march on to Jerusalem O O O O O O 0 Peter the Hermit Raised army of peasants from France and Germany People s Crusade reached Constantinople August 1096 Looted and fought along the way About 20000 men women and children crossed in to Asia Minor Crusade ended First Crusade Four armies from France and Belgium Crusaders attacked Antioch and in June 1098 the city fell 0 January 1099 they set out forJerusalem 0 June 1099 they attacked Jerusalem and fell in July 1099 Second Crusade 0 Louis VIIFrance and Conrad IllGermany decided to retaliate o Germans decided to attack Damascus 0 They were only Muslim ally of the French so they said no 0 Third Crusade 0 Frederick Barbosa Holy Roman Emperor of Germany Pope gave him orders to conquer Muslim empires but he conquered Christian empires instead Wanted him to free Jerusalem 0 Philip ll King of France 0 Richard quotthe Lion heartedquot King of England 0 Fourth Crusade 0 Was put together to make money by stealing and looting o 1204 they sacked Constantinople 1215 Decided to go to Egypt more wealth Arrived at annual ooding of the Nile Children s Crusade o 1212 0 Nicolas of Cologne decided the other crusades failed because they only fought 0 He set up 20 thousands of young children to march to Italy then get on ships to go pray in Palestine The Italian merchants sold them all in to slavery High Middle Ages Byzantine Empire 0 Never recovered and ruled only over Constantinople 0 Finally destroyed by Ottoman Turks in 1453 o Crusade did not help Byzantine empire but did help stabilize Europe Houston Stewart Chamberlain Germans only true successors to Aryan race Needed to protect civilization form lower races Jews Blacks Asians AntiSemitism not new to Europe But antiSemitic parties rose up in Austria and Germany in 1880 s and 1890 s Many Russian Jews left some to the US KKK Klu Klux Klan Rose up after WWI After WWI they became extremely hostile to Jews Roman Catholics socialists communists and immigrants Hiram W Evans became the Klan s Imperial Wizard They don t cover their faces anymore They claim to be super American Theodor Herzl 18601904 300 Jewish people a year went to Palestine between 19041914 0 many started thinking about a return to Palestine 19001948 0 in 1832 Palestine was conquered by Egypt 0 1840 Britain intervened and returned control to the ottomans World War o By 1917 Arabia and Egypt fought Ottomans Balfour Declaration of 1917 o The British captured Jerusalem a month later and were formally awarded a mandate in 1922 0 Con rmed the League of Nations on July 24 1922 o The nonJewish Palestinians revolted in 1920 1929 and 1936 0 Western Wall in Jerusalem Nazi Germany 0 Adolf Hitler o Austrian mostly failure artist became very racist and anti sematic and a German nationalist By 1932 largest party Hitler was legally and fairly elected as chancellor in 1933 Then takes over and turns it into a fascist state Created SS under Heinrich Himmler based on terror and ideology Goal to further Aryan master race carefully chosen elite with racist ideology 0000 O o 1935 Nuremberg laws against Jewish separated from rest of population 0 The SS blames everything on the Jews saying they re criminals and they re evil 1938 Kristallnacht Night of Shattered Glass 0 Destroyed synagogues businesses killed Jewish people and sent 20000 to concentration camps O Palestine Great Britain decided in 1947 to leave Palestine UN adopted a plan calling for the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states First ArabIsraeli War May 1948 Egypt Jordan Syria Lebanon and Iraq joined Palestine and attacked lsrael 19521990 1952 the population had doubled in Israel By the late 19605 Jews from Asia and Africa began to outnumber Europeans Arab nationalism increased dramatically Led Israel to attack Egypt Jordan and Syria in June 1967 0 Six day war The occupied Territories included an Arab population of about 15 million Palestine Liberation Organization 0 Yasser Arafat Yom Kippur War in 1973 0 Egypt and Syria attacked to regain the territories lost in 1967 0 Camp David Accords 0 Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Jimmy Carter 0 900000 Soviet Jews immigrated US Support 0 Formal intergovernment relations remained chilly until 1967 o More than 140 billion between 1948 and 2004 0 Annual 3 billion in direct assistance 0 Support for Israel is strong among American Christians Informal lobbying also includes the activities ofJewish groups 0 Three key formal lobbying groups 0 Christians United for Israel 0 American Israel Public Affairs Committee AIPAC 0 Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations The Modern World 0 Cultural Imperialism o The practice of promoting the culture and language of one nation in another 0 Also called Americanization o McWorld o
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