1 Week of Psych Notes
1 Week of Psych Notes Psych 1010
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Lecture 14 Motivation Behavior Neurological Structures React amp regulate Brain stem and spinal cord reptilian brain Approachavoid Subcortical structures limbic system governs motivated behavior mammalian brain Plan delay modify Forebrain primate brain 1 Motivation 11 Human Motives amp Needs III Motivation amp the Brain Review Learning to approachavoid stimuli that have previously brought pleasurepain Emotion experience pleasurepain Learning see the connection between stimuli amp emotion Memory remember What has previously brought Motivation approachavoidance tendencies Motivation The study of Why organisms behave the way they do Motivation must be inferred I Choice I Latencyspeed I Persistence I Intensityvigor Homeostasis amp Motivation The tendency for an organism to maintain a stable internal environment aka equilibrium Disequilibrium creates aversive tension that organisms are driven to reduce Terminology Term Definition Needs Something an organism requires biologically or desires psychologically Drive A state of internal tension or arousal that occurs when a need arises Goalsincentives An object or experience that satisfies a need Motivation Movement toward incentives that satisfy needs or desires ie that reduce drive Motivational Episode Need arises I Need creates aversive tension drive I Drive moves motivates I Appropriate object acquires an incentive I Consuming incentive reduces drive I Learning occurs habit is acquired I Next time need arises learning is displayed Motivational Con ict Approachapproach I Two objects are equally attractive Avoidanceavoidance I Two objects are equally repulsive Approachavoidance I The same object is attractive and repulsive ie produces approach and avoidance tendencies Human Needs Type Definition Physiological Needs that directly promote survival or reproductive success Regulatory Needs that maintain internal equilibrium Safety Needs to avoid harm or escape danger and to feel safe Reproductive Needs that lead to procreation and the protection and nurturance of offspring Psychological Needs that can promote survival or reproductive success but do not necessarily do so Social Needs that promote bonds between people e g friendship love and cooperation Selfworth Needs for selfrespect selfsatisfaction and selfactualization Educative Needs to play create master or explore curiosity Maslow s Model Selfactualization I Esteem needs I Belongingness amp love needs I Safety needs I Physiological needs Selfactualization I Maximizing one s potential and fulfilling one s aspirations Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level ones can be pursued Motivation amp The Brain Central Drive Systems I Receive and integrate signals that monitor needsdrives I Control processes that carry out motivated behavior Hypothalamus amp Motivation The hypothalamus is a central drive system It receives input from various parts of the body and coordinates responses to internal and external stimuli Hunger amp Homeostasis Hunger I Low glucose I Orexigenic chemicals released I Eat I Raise glucose I Anorexigenic chemicals released I Stop eating Hunger amp The Hypothalamus Lateral hypothalamus I Appetite stimulation I When destroyed animals starve themselves to death Ventromedial hypothalamus I Appetite suppression I When destroyed animals overeat Lecture 15 Emotion 1 De ning Emotion II Theories of Emotion III Brain amp Emotion Motivation amp Emotion Motivation and emotion are related in two ways I Hedonic principle I Emotions motivate behavior De ning Emotions Emotions are syndromes comprised of several features No single feature is necessary Eliciting stimulus I Cognitive appraisal I Physiological reaction I Subjective feeling I Behavioral tendency Threat I Tremble I Feel afraid I Run away Basic Emotions Emotions that are innate and universal because they are adaptive Can be recognized by all members of a species Plutchik s Functional Model Emotion Stimulus Appraisal Behavior Consequence Fear Threat Danger Escape Safety Anger Obstacle Enemy Attack Conquer Dis gust Unpalatable Poison Vomit Eject poison object Sadness Loss of valued Abandonment Cry Reattach to object valued object Theories of Emotion Explain the sequence of emotional components Common Sense Stimulus I Appraisal I Feelings I Arousal amp Behavior Bear I Threat I Fear I Tremble amp Flee J amesLange Stimulus I Appraisal I Arousal amp Behavior I Feelings Bear I Threat I Tremble amp Flee I Fear CannonBard Stimulus I Appraisal I Arousal amp Feeling I Behavior Bear I Threat I Tremble amp Fear I Flee Schachter amp Singer Stimulus I Arousal I Appraisal I Feeling I Behavior Bear I Tremble I Threat I Fear I Flee Bear I Tremble I That bear is cute I Love I Hug Summary J amesLange I Basic emotions necessary for survival spinal re ex CannonB ard I Anticipatory emotions e g anxiety that precede behavioral responses learned habits SchachterSinger I Emotions With undefined physiological correlates e g excitement vs nervousness Brain amp Emotion Emotions are linked to multiple structures and processes in the nervous system Sympathetic division of the Autonomic Nervous System physiological responses Limbic system behavioral reactions Prefrontal cortex cognitive appraisals subjective feelings and emotional inhibition Facial musculature behavioral expressions Hemispheric Specialization Lefthemisphere activation underlies positive emotions Righthemisphere activation underlies negative emotions Lefthemisphere develops later infants can feel long before they can speak suggesting that negative emotions are primary and positive emotions require maturity Lecture 16 Learning 1 1 Review 11 Classical Classical Conditioning 111 Applications Overview Term De nition Key Figures Habituation Learning not to respond to a stimulus Classical Through principles of association a previously neutral Pavlov Conditioning stimulus comes to evoke a previously re exive response Operant By Virtue its personal consequences a previously neutral Thorndike Conditioning stimulus comes to evoke a voluntary behavior Watson amp Skinner Observational By Virtue its observed consequences a previously Bandura Learning neutral stimulus comes to evoke a voluntary behavior A re ex is an innate stimulusinstigated behavior that is not acquired through experience A habit is a learned a stimulusinstigated behavior that is acquired through experience Learning consists of forming an association I Between two stimuli I Between a response and a consequence Types of Learning Term Definition Example Unconditional A stimulus that innately produces a Food in the mouth innately produces Stimulus UCS re exive response salivation Unconditional Re exive response to an Salivation re exively follows food in Response UCR unconditioned stimulus the mouth Conditioned A previously neutral stimulus that A tone paired with food becomes Stimulus CS through association produces a capable of producing salivation learned re exlike response Conditioned A learned response habit to a Salivation occurs when a tone is Response CR previously neutral stimulus heard Classical Classical Conditioning A process by which through principles of association a previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke a previously re exive response Ivan Pavlov Procedure Prior to training a tone does not produce salivation but food powder does During training a tone is repeatedly sounded before food is placed in the dog s mouth Eventually the dog begins to salivate to the sound of the tone Key Terms in Classical Conditioning Mechanics Equiprobability I Any neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus with equal ease Turning any neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus is easiest when I Forward Pairing The neutral stimulus precedes the UCS I Short Temporal Delay There is a short delay between the neutral stimulus and the UCS Related Processes Term Definition Example Stimulus Generalization A similar CS produces a CR Dog salivates to the sound of a pitch pipe Discrimination A dissimilar CS doesn t Dog doesn t salivate to the sound produce a CR of a drum Secondary higherorder A CS can function as a Dog learns to salivate to sound of conditioning secondary UCS a drum if it is first paired with a tuning fork Extinction CR stops occurring if UCS Dog stops salivating to tuning fork no longer follows CS if food stops following its sound Spontaneous Recovery CR is easily reinstated if Dog begins to salivate to tuning UCS follows CS fork if food follows once Summary of Classical Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning occurs when through principles of association a previously neutral stimulus becomes capable of evoking a previously re exive response Classical conditioning was traditionally viewed as a mindless linkage between stimuli and responses characterized by equiprobability Applications Taste aversion I Disgust is easily conditioned to stimuli associated with poisonous substances I Food poisoning Chemotherapy patients Lecture 17 Learning 2 I Operant Conditioning 11 Thorndike III Skinner IV Operant amp Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning A process by which a habit is acquired as a result of its prior consequences A habit is formed When in the presence of a stimulus a behavior is followed by a desired outcome Operant conditioning involves voluntary behaviors that are instrumental to attaining a desired goal or avoid an undesired one Behaviorism A school of thought 3 assumptions 1 Positivism I Study only concrete events that can be verified by multiple neutral observers 2 A11 behavior originates through trial and error I Organisms ail but do not purposefully attempt 3 Mechanism I Thoughts play no role in guiding behavior I Thoughts exist but they are epiphenomenal ie they are above the phenomenon I Animals including humans mindlessly repeat behaviors that have met With prior reinforcement Mechanism Illustrated Animal is punished for stealing I Animal stops stealing Child is punished for stealing I Child learns that stealing is immoral and stops stealing Thorndike Puts an animal in a puzzle box cage Arbitrarily picks a correct response Reinforces animal whenever it emits the correct response Over time the animal comes to emit the correct response soon after it is placed in the puzzle box Thorndike s Laws Law of effect I Behavior is a function of its prior consequences Law of exercise I Habitual behaviors are acquired in a slow gradual fashion without swift changes Darwin Natural selection Variations exist among members of a species Some of these variations prove to be adaptive Adaptive variations endure maladaptive ones perish Thorndike Operant conditioning Animals ail ie their movements are random Some of these movements prove to be adaptive Adaptive movements behaviors persist maladaptive ones perish Skinner Skinner developed the operant chamber aka the Skinner box to study operant conditioning Discriminative stimulus I The box comes with a light or speaker that serves as a discriminative stimulus I A discriminative stimulus indicates when a response will produce a consequence Operant Conditioning Diagrammed Discriminative stimulus I Response I Consequence Light appears I Rat presses bar I Food appears Reinforcers amp Punishers Skinner regarded the term reward as valueladen and unscientific Preferred the terms reinforce and punisher Also distinguished adding a consequence vs removing a consequence Reinforcer Punisher Consequence increases the Consequence decreases the behavior behavior Positive Praise child when he cleans Scold child when he hits Add consequence following his room response Negative Quit nagging child when he Take away toys when he Remove consequence cleans up his room hits following response Reinforcement Schedules Fixed schedule I Reinforcement occurs at a constant predictable rate Variable schedule I Reinforcement occurs at a variable unpredictable rate Ratio Interval Fixed Reinforcement every 5 bar presses Reinforcement every 5 minutes Variable Average reinforcement of 1 for every Average reinforcement every 5 5 bar presses but variable with minutes but variable with respect respect to which press produces to when reinforcement comes reinforcement Schedule Consequences Fixed schedules promote faster learning Variable schedules promote resistant extinction Lecture 18 Learning 3 Learning amp Motivation Why is a stimulus a reinforcer Clark Hull I A stimulus is reinforcing only if it reduces a drive ie satisfies a need Connects motivation need reduction and learning Hull s Drive Reduction Model Drive motivates behavior Learning occurs ie a habit is acquired only if a consequence reduces a drive by satisfying a need Testing Behaviorism s Key Assumptions All behavior originates through trial and error Social Learning Animals imitate other animals proving initial behaviors are not always random Sometimes we look to see what others have done and pick that as our first approach We keep doing it only if we are reinforced for it Reinforcement drive reduction is needed for learning to occur Latent Learning Behaviorism maintains that reinforcement is needed in order for learning to occur learning occurs in the absence of reinforcement E g An experiment with three groups of rats occurred where the rats that were only reinforced once performed just as well in a maze as the rats that were reinforced every single day Any response can become associated with any stimulus with equal facility equiprobability Psychologists now believe that animals are biologically predisposed to learn some associations more readily than others Taste aversions is strong and happens quickly Garcia and Koelling study in textbook Rats drink sweetened water from a tube a light and gentle buzzer will turn on while they drink water conditioned stimuli IA of the rats get nauseating Xrays while they drink IA of the rats receive electrical shock Rats that got sick developed fear aversion of anything sweet but not of the bright lightsnoise Rats that were shocked had no fear of sweet taste but did fear bright lightsnoise Classical Conditioning Reconsidered Classical view I Mindless process CS comes to re exively trigger the CR New stimulus I Response connection is formed Contemporary view I Prediction not mindless association underlies classical conditioning
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