Journalism Notes Chapters: 1,2,3 & 16
Journalism Notes Chapters: 1,2,3 & 16 J201
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Mendoza on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to J201 at University of Oregon taught by Jennifer Schwartz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Journalism Core at University of Oregon.
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Journalism 201 Media and Society Study Guide 2nd Exam Why is Cosmopolitan a good example of the adaptability of the magazine industry 0 It began as a child care and decorative magazine in 1886 0 Evolved into a literacy magazine as country s literacy rates went up 0 1905 changed into a muckraking magazine 39 Focused on exposing corruption in government Gov and Social institutions 0 19605 Helen Gurley Brown reinvented the magazine s makeover 39 Marketed towards the Cosmo Girl Fueled a sexual revolution 39 Targeted women s interest love sex fashion and a career Fun Fearless Female What are the five stages of magazines 1 Colonial Stage 1741 1800 0 Similar to newspapers 0 Political and Persuasive 0 Ben Franklin wrote Poor Richards Almanack in 1739 0 Served educated and merchant class 0 25 cents a cop expensive at the time 0 Short lived 2 General Interest 1850 1950 0 National magazines 0 Postal Act of 1879 lowered cost 0 Improved technologies Print and Delivery 0 Mass immigration and Western migration 0 Increasing literacy 0 Created a National Audience Immigrants Bringing diverse cultures and languages together through pictures and visuals 0 Magazines were rst national product rst national audience and rst national market 39 Audiences viewed as consumers by advertisers 3 Muckrakers heyday 1890 1914 0 Long form journalism called for social and political reform 39 Corruption in business and government Urban problems Immigrant problems Labor con icts Muckraker Someone who always had their head down exposing the dirt rather than the good in the world 39 Term by Teddy Roosevelt as an insult but journalists took it as a badge of honor 0 1900s Immigrants were vulnerable and poor photographs were taken to show the world of shame ex children working long shifts crowded living conditions 0 Corruption in NY politics Lincoln Steffens wrote 6 short stories about NYC police department sparking change 4 Photojournalism heyday 1890 1950 0 Expanded surveillance into the visual 0 Visual was authentic real 0 Power of an image to create social reform Ushered in visual age Television 0 Emotional and Memorable People were attracted to a visual than reading words in an article 0 Showed horror and humanity of Great Depression 0 Colored Photographs introduced in the 50s through National Geographic 0 Photographs were able to transport you people cared about the events because they were able to visualized it 0 National Magazines declined in the 1950s TV 39 Production costs increasing Paperbacks Increased postal rates 39 Magazines shift from general interest into lifestyle specialization 39 National magazines competed with radio because of the visuals 0 Magazines adapted to TV in 1950s TV Guide 1953 Today 39 TV Program listings People 1964 Today 39 Celebrity craze 5 Specialization 1950 Today 0 Thrived with niche audiences Professions Lifestyle farmer hunter gamer Gender Men s Health Women s Day or Lady s Home Journal 39 Age AARP Bulletin 39 Special Interests National Geographic Hobbies quilting gardening knittingetc 0 Today there are over 20000 niche speciality magazines 0 Photojournalism in the Digital Age Digital images are easily altered photoshop 39 Loss of proof 39 Loss of veracity truth everyone doubts every image 0 Digital Age Visual un Truth Lifestyle magazines staged and digitally enhanced 39 Creates unrealistic lifestyle fantasies Celebrities When did magazines become a popular mass medium Why 0 The Postal Act of 1879 lowered the cost of magazines put them on the same level as newspapers and made magazines into a mass medium 0 Lower cost of production and distribution magazines began to make more pro t What is muckraking Coined by Teddy Roosevelt Someone who always had their head down exposing the muck dirt rather than focusing on the good in the world 0 Originally an insult but Journalists took it as a badge of honor What forces led to growing demand for magazines in the mid1800s 0 National magazines 0 Postal Act of 1879 lowered cost 0 Improved technologies printing and delivery 0 Mass immigration 0 Westward migration 0 Increasing literacy 0 Public education for all Which early magazines appealed to women Why 0 Cosmopolitan Increased literacy and women s rights What are characteristics of the generalinterest magazines stage and which magazines were important during this stage 0 Saturday Evenings Post 18211969 39 Cyrus Curtis transformed it into a widely popular generalinterest magazine Fiction and Romantic values 39 Celebrated the business boom Readers Digest 1922Today Inexpensive production cost low cost and pocket sized format 39 Became widely popular during the Great Depression 39 Condensed Fiction Time 1923Today 39 Reporter research teams to cover worthy events and editor would turn the news into articles Visually documenting both national and international events Interpretive Journalism Life 19361972 39 Photo spreads with research articles Lavish advertisements Fashion photography A key aspect of these magazines are Photojournalism How has photojournalism evolved 0 Digital images can be easily altered loss of proof What caused recorded music to become a mass medium 0 Edison develops Phonograph in 1877 Who are the early inventors of recorded music and their inventions 0 Edison develops Phonograph in 1877 0 Emilie develops Grammophone in 1887 What are the differences between 78s LPs and 45s 0 78s Turn 78 revolutions per minute vinyl less noisy and more durable than shellac 0 45s Quarter size hole in middle easy to play in Jukeboxes standard for singles created by RCA 0 LPs Standard for long playing albums 20 mins each side created by CBS What four genres are the origins of popular music in the US 0 Jazz Roots 1910 New Orleans Big bands in 30s and 40s Popular with Teens 39 Popular Artists Louis Armstrong and Tommy Dorsey 0 Southern Delta Blues Roots 39 1900s grew up in Mississippi Delta African American Musicians 39 Letting loose during hard times with emotional music 39 Popular Artists Robert Johnson Lead Belly Muddy Waters Howlin Wolf and Son House 0 Vaudeville Roots Theaters Focuses on personalities 39 Lead solo Artists Frank Sinatra and Billie Holiday 0 Country Roots 39 Southerners 1920s 39 European and African Folk music 39 Gospels Emphasized string music 39 Diverse social groups worked and played together What is rock and roll How did it in uence society 0 Rock and Roll is a combination of 1950s blues and country 0 Brought a young audience into music and encouraged juvenile delinquency What is jazz and where did it develop 0 Developed in 1910 in New Orleans 0 A genre of music that originated in AfricanAmerican communities What is cover music and who was the first AfricanAmerican artist to have a No 1 pop hit by covering a country song 0 Louis Armstrong What is popular music 0 Culturally and socially relevant 0 Style and sound appeal to masses of people 0 Produced for pro t 0 Short lived relevance What was wireless telegraphy first used for Why 0 First commercially used to transmit morse code for the shipping industry Who are the early inventors of radio 0 Marconi developed wireless telegraphy morse code 1896 0 Fessenden develops short distance transmission in 1906 0 De Forest developed Audion detects radio signals Who owns the airwaves and who regulates radio 0 Radio waves are the collective property of Americans they belong to the public 0 Regulated by the government for public and national security What were early radio regulations 0 Radio Act of 1912 Radio Act of 1927 and Federal Communications Act of 1934 How did the government organize radio 0 Regulated for public interest convenience necessity 39 PublicNational Security Equal time for political candidates Who started NBC CBS and ABC 0 1926 GE forms NBC red and NBC blue 0 1928 CBS created by Bill Paley paid stations to carry content 0 1941 Gov forces GE to sell NBC blue which became ABC What was the golden age of radio 0 1920s1940s Great Depression 19291939 WWII 19391945 Four important trends during the Golden Age 1 Shared National Experience 0 American families gathered around radio 0 97 of stations affiliated with national networks 0 Nation same program same time 2 Radio paved way for TV 0 New entertainment formats 0 Comedies dramas quiz shows news and politics children s shows live music 0 Serials 0 Consumed in home 0 Social Exposure 3 Re ected shifts in American culture 0 Shifting attitudes about race 0 Amos 11 Andy 0 1930s Height of popularity 0 1950s Civil rights movement show ended Re ected levels of tolerance for stereotypes 0 Characters developed through stereotypes stereotype labels to categorize a group reductive predictable 4 Voice of Authority 0 Fireside chats 0 FDR 0 193 Os 0 War of the Worlds 0 Orson Welles 1938 0 Style of radio news bulletin 0 People panicked because they believed radio broadcast was truth How was radio a cultural mirror 0 Re ected tolerance of stereotypes re ected with history How was radio the voice of authority 0 FDR in 1930s through Fireside chats Orson Welles in 1938 through War of the Worlds Why is format specialization popular today 0 Format specialization is popular today because the different formats serve diverse groups of listeners Formats usually target audiences according to age income gender or race 0 Examples News talk radio adult contemporary and spanish language radio Who were the early inventors of movies 0 Eastman develops roll lm 0 Le Prince invents rst motion picture camera with roll lm 0 Goodwin invented celluloid roll lm 0 Lumiere brothers created cinematograph in France in 1895 in a basement When did movies become a mass medium 0 In 1896 when movies began to tell a story What was the reputation of early movies 0 Initially regarded as trashy entertainment Targeted lower working class What is a nickelodeon who did they serve and why did they decline in popularity 0 Nickelodeon s Movie houses that showed silent movies with live entertainment introduction from 19001915 0 Transcended literacy and language barriers 0 Declined in 1915 movie houses evolved into larger theaters What is a movie palace 0 Movie palace Large elaborated decorated theaters 0 Typically purchased by studios who gave them control of lm distribution 0 Provided 90 of all box of ce sales 0 Attracted all classes What is the Hollywood Studio System and why was it powerful Why did it end 0 Oligopoly controlled by few studios Paramount MGM Warner Fox 0 Large motion picture studios produced lms on their own studio lots often hiring people through longterm contract 0 Vertical Integration owning the lm process from beginning to end 0 Production distribution and exhibition were all done by one company 0 Ended by the 1948 Paramount Decision 39 Studios forced to sell theaters 39 Ended vertical integration What was the 1948 Paramount Decision 0 Separated production from distribution and exhibition How did the movie industry compete with TV 0 Began developing new technologies technicolor larger screens stereophonic sound 3D and IMAX 0 VHS DVD and bluray 0 Movies began to cover sexuality and racism topics TV would not generally cover What is a consensus narrative 0 Cultural products that became popular and command wideattention providing shared cultural experiences 0 Accessible language and imagery that bridge cultural differences Today how do studios make money DVD sales boxof ce receipts etc in the US 1 Boxoffice sales 0 Studios get about 40 of the theater boxof ce take in this rst window of movie exhibition 0 Theater gets the rest 2 DVD video sales and rentals 0 Accounts for almost 50 of all domestic lm income for major studios 0 A small percentage of this market includes directtoDVD lms 3 Cable and television outlets Comprise of Payper view 39 Videoondemand 39 Premium cable HBO 39 Network amp basic cable 0 TV market also pays the studio on negotiated lmby lm basis 4 Foreign distribution 0 Studios earn pro ts from distributing lms in foreign markets 0 International boxof ce gross revenues are almost double the US and Canada boxof ce receipts 5 Independent film distribution 0 Studios make money by distributing the work of independent producers and lmmakers Hire the studios to gain wider circulation 0 Pay the studios 3050 of the boxof ce and video rental money they make from their movies 6 Licensing and product placement 0 Earn revenues from merchandise licensing to retailers Action gures representing characters from a movie 0 Companies that make cars snacks and other products also play studios to place products in movies 39 Examples ET Reese s pieces amp Back to the Future PepsiCola
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