333 Unit 1 notes sample
333 Unit 1 notes sample PSYC 333
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Moore on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
PSYC 333 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and its Research Strategies Terms and concepts to know Development the continuities and changes during an organism s lifespan Normative development developmental changes that are typical of many children ldeographic development developmental changes for a particular or given child Hypothesis predictions that arise from theory Valid research research that measures what it is supposed to measure Reliable research research that is consistently measured Correlational research design research design that answers if two or more variables are meaningfully related correlation coefficient 100 to 100 tells you how strong the strength of the correlation is Longitudinal research design Same participants observed repeatedly over time can asses stability but is time consuming Crosssectional research design People of different ages are studied at the same time used most often cohort effects any differences observed may be due to cultural or historical factors Cohort group of same age exposed to similar experiences Experimental study use of IV and DV assesses cause and effect relationships between two variables field and natural as well as lab Informed consent children are only allowed to participate in studies with informed consent from the parents meaning that their parent must know everything about the study Nature and nurture both have a heavy influence on children Chapter 2 Hereditary Influences on Development Terms and concepts to know Genotype genetic trait Phenotype physical expression of genetic traits Mitosis process of cell division through which cells duplicate themselves continues during the life course Meiosis germ sex cells only crossing over why there is genetic variability Monozygotic twins single zygote divides and twins are genetically identical Dizygotic twins fraternal twins two zygotes fertilized by different sperm Sexlinked genetic expression characteristics controlled by genes located at the 23rd chromosome pair PSYC 333 Exam 1 Study Guide Genetic counseling informs the parents about their risk of hacing a baby with a serious geneticcongenital defects Heritability high to low Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth Terms and concepts to know Stress effects during pregnancy immediate effects impede oxygen and nutrients to the fetus cortisol Long term effects weakened immune system linked to poor eating smoking drugs and alcohol use Don t want too little stress moderate levels may aid in development APGAR scale Appearance Pulse Grimace response Activity Respiration A test given to newborns at 15 and 10 minutes after delivery Each category is scored from 02 Final score of 010 Drugs during birthing process 95 of women use some sort of drugs Fathers after birth fathers who have helped care for their infants soon after birth may spend more time interacting with their infants at home Low birth weight most common from cigarettes low less than 5le 802 very low less than 3lbs 502 extremely low less than 2bs 3 oz Chapter 4 Infancy Terms and concepts to know Hearing vs visual abilities infants hearing is far more developed then their sight 20600 vision Phonemes in infancy at 36 months infants are sensitive to phonemes that are not from their native language They grow out of this as they learn and hear more of their native language Visual accommodation changing the lens shape to keep an image in sharp focus Pupillary reflex the neonates response to brightness changes in the illuminating light Visual cliff when infants begin to crawl they soon after develop a fear of drop offs A study with ages 6 months shows that over 90 prefer the shallow side of a visual cliff table lntermodal perception senses are all integrated even at birth Oral to visual Habituation a response from an infant declines when a stimulus is repeated Classical conditioning unconditioned stimulus US elicits an unconditioned response UCR Neutral conditioned stimulus CS paired with unconditioned response UCR Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response CR Reflexes rooting turning head when cheek is touched Babinski toes spread out lnfants memories are contextdependent PSYC 333 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 5 Physical Development Brain Body Motor Skills and Sexual Development Terms and concepts to know Reproductive organ growth at the fastest rate during adolescence puberty Plasticity principle cells are responsive to experience allows change in the brain recovering from brain injury Myelin sheath protective covering over axons that increases the speed of nerve impulses in the axon Synapses increase speed Cephalocaudal development head down Proximodistal development middle out Dynamical systems theory new motor abilities emerge as a consequence of the active reorganization of existing motor capabilities into a new more complex action Infant movement skills the developmental sequence for infant movement skills is the same for children of all races and cultures Adolescent growth spurt first sign of puberty Secular trend the decadeslong trend for earlier sexual maturation Genetic influence on maturation achievement of maturational milestones is more similar for monozygotic twins than for heterozygous twins Nonorganic failure to thrive children have difficulty feeding and suffer from retarded growth Thyroxine secreted by the thyroid gland is essential fro the normal growth of the brain and bones Childhood illness in developing countries children who have been relatively free from illnesses tend to be taller and heavier than their sick peers
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