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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corey James on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 320 at WSU Vancouver taught by Renee Magnan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at WSU Vancouver.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Corey!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Psychology 320 11315 Stress What is Health Psychology 0 Psychological in uences on health illness and response to those states 0 Psychological origins and impact on health policy and interventions o Biopsychosocial perspective 0 Empiricallybased research ndings Chronic illnesses are the most common way of deaths that occur in today39s time Research methods 0 Why Set of plausible statementsprinciples offered to explain or predict a health outcome 0 Create testable predictions about the relationship between two or more variables Experimental research 0 Tests a cause and effect relationship Independent variable 0 The factor being manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable 0 The factor being measured 0 Outcome of interest Randomized clinical trial RCT 0 Clinical trials 0 Highly controlled research studies STRIDE intervention 0 IV Telephone based individualized feedback Print based individualized feedback Control contact 0 DV Moderateintensity walking Correlational research 0 Established a relationship between two ro more factors Sizestrength SignDirection 0 Positive correlation Variables change In same direction 0 Negative correlation Variables change in different directions Time Frame 0 Crosssectional Everything measured at the same time o Retrospective Assessing after the fact Relies on information from the past 0 How good did you feel the last time you exercised 0 Longitudinal Approach to get a better sense of how people change over an extended period of time Same person observed over time Cohort of 1000 people with assessments every 10 years Correlational design 0 Prospective Looks at extended in uence over time Effects of STRIDE intervention every 3 months for a year 0 Analyzing their progress and development over time Systems of the Body Autonomic nervous system mainly correlated to stress 0 Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system 0 Sympathetic system Arousal Sexual ChaHenges Threats Prepares body for energy expenditure Important role in reactions to stress Fightor ight o Parasympathetic Calming down your body Acts antagonistically to the sympathetic system Restores body to normal state Heart rate Restanddigest response 0 Somatic NS Interaction with external world Voluntary Neurotransmitters 0 Chemicals that regulate the nervous system functioning acetylcholine Catecholamine o Epinephrine o Norepinephrine Released in substantial quantities during stressful times Endocrine system 0 System of ductless glands Release hormones into the body 0 Regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary gland Cortisol big stress hormone Cardiovascular system 0 Transportation system fo the body Heart blood vessels and blood c To get oxygen to and from organs in the body Arteries carry blood away from the heart Veins carry blood back to the heart after the oxygen has been used Cardiac cycle Phases of contraction and relaxation SystoIe cycIe Blood pumped out of the heart Pressure on vessels increase Diastole cycIe Blood being taken into the heart Pressure on blood vessels decrease Blood pressure Cardiac output Peripheral resistance Immune system 0 Transmission of disease by infection 0 O 0 Stress O 0 Infection Invasion of microbes and their growth in the body Speci c vs nonspeci c effects Speci c Fight particular microorganisms and their toxins Nonspeci c General set of responses to any kind of infection Phagocytosis The process by which certain white blood cells phagocytes ingest microbes Phagocytes Speci c white blood cells In ammation LocaI reaction to infection Increases the permeability of the capillaries Anatomical barriers Prevent passage of microbes from one section of the body to another Antimicrobialsubstances Chemicals made by the body to kill invading microorganisms Negative emotional experience Predictable positive or negative changes towards altering or accommodating effects stress response Biochemical Releases hormones o Epinephrine o CortisoI PhysioIogicaI 0 Increased heart rate 0 Loss of appetite Sleepless nights Cognitive Narrow in attention 0 Lead to distraction Lack of focus Worry Behavioral o Stressor Actual event that is causing the stress real or perceived Subjective individual appraised Perception of invent determines whether it is a stressor Personenvironment t 0 Personal Resources Suf cient resources to meet demands little stress Probably suf cient resources moderate stress Insuf cient resources to meet demands Great deal of stress Homeostasis o Maintaining a balanced internal state 0 Acute stress is adaptive o Responds quickly to threats 0 Chronic stress is not adaptive o Continues unabated o Often psychological in nature 0 Disrupts emotional cognitivephysiological functioning Selye s general adaptation syndrome 0 Nonspeci c response Same pattern of physiological response regardless of the type of stress 0 Incorporates short and long term exposure 0 Three phases Alarm mobilized to threat Resistance Effort to cope with threat Exhaustion Failure to overcome threat and physiological resources depleted Allostatic load 0 Wear and tear that disrupts homeostasis in the body among the systems of the body 0 General adaptation syndrome 0 Provides general theory of reactions to wide variety of stressors over time o Criticisms Limited role given to psychological factors Appraisal of event 0 Stress during and in anticipation Lazarus39 cognitive appraisal model o Psychological appraisal of stress Appraisal of situation determines level of stress experienced Primary appraisal perception of the event 0 Determine if it is positive neutral or negative 0 If negative evaluated for perceived harm threat and chaHenge Secondary appraisal coping ability and resources 0 Are my resources sufficient to overcome harmthreatchallenge of this event 0 Yes resources nolittle stress 0 No resources High stress Film notes 0 The two workhorses of stress are 0 o Sapolslql s early work measuring February 2 2015 0 Adaptive stress response is under acute stress response 0 HPA axis endgame Cortisol Cortisol increases sugar Gets you ready to go HPA access gets negative feedback Maladaptive stress conditions 0 Chronic stress 0 Negative feedback breaks in the hypothalamus 0 Not letting system go back to normal HPA axis Trier social stress test 0 Increased heart rate 0 Perspiration o Cortisol What makes events stressful o Perceived stress vs Exposure stress Air traf c controller study Perceived workload Objective workload Both likelihood of health problems 0 Anticipation Medical student blood pressure study 0 Aftereffects of stress PTSD Undergone extremely stressful event 0 Reactions may include o Reliving memories of trauma 0 Avoidance o Intensi cation of adverse reactions to other stressors o Psychological numbing 0 Sleep disturbances guilt impaired memory 0 Systems persist long after the event has passes 911 attacks 0 Reported PTSD 35 days after 0 44 of Americans bothered by at least one symptom of PTSD After one month 0 75 of symptoms were consistent o 97 individuals consistent with major depression 0 Stress moderators Factor that modi es how stress is experienced and the effect it has good or bad 0 Impact of stress psychologicalPhysiological Relation between stress and illness 0 Degree to which stressful experiences intrudes into other aspects of life Social support Personality Coping style Other life stressors Resources Humor Social support 0 Information from others that one is loved and cared for esteemed and valued and part of a network of communication and mutual obligations 3 reasons to be with others under stress 0 Emotional support comfort Empathy caring concern 0 Informational Advice directions feedback Going to someone who has experienced a similar experience to help through the event 0 Instrumental Tangible Materials or resources 0 Received vs Perceived 0 Received Actual provision of help 0 Perceived Perception that the support is available 0 Measurements are either quality or quantity 0 Structural Quantity available resources 0 Functional Quality How supported you actually feel 0 When is social support bene cial 0 Direct effects hypothesis Bene cial to health whether when under stress or not More quantity the better 0 Buffering effects hypothesis More quality the better 0 Direct effects hypothesis 0 9 year longitudinal study Fewer social community ties more likely to have died Strongest ties lived 23 years longer if male and 27 for females Buffering effects hypothesis 0 Argues that people who do not have quality social support experience an extensive probability of stress and depressive symptoms 0 Coping Process of managing demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding resources Dynamic process Requires a set or process 0 Coping styles Propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular and speci c fashion 0 General strategies 0 Speci c strategies
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