Selected Topics in Linguistic Anthropology
Selected Topics in Linguistic Anthropology
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Date Created: 04/07/14
Anthro 147 Notes 4714 1056 AM 4114 How do children come to understand and eventually master the language around them How infants who are born into a culture come to perceive and understand language We raise our speech to a higher register with infants some ways we talk differently but don39t have a different set of language Infants are experiencing language The process of immersing and interacting with it Infants hear essentially music They hear pauses notes and different kinds of sounds It is only overtime that infants come to be able to segment this essentially continuous speech stream that they hear and overtime they can acquire meanings How do infants make sense of the practices of language The engagement of being a proficient language user What is language A cultural marker Means of communication Sense of belonging to a culture Representational system System of rules and structures Vehicle for thinking We are interesting in HOW people are using language vs how people should be using language General thoughts about language Language as it is used not as we think it should be used Language is NOT speech Language is not static it can always be a moving target It is growing and changing Language involves both culture and biology Language as a system Speech soundsphonology Words What is a word A child is hearing continuous speech Kids say gimme or wanna all the time Morphology Syntax Discourse Speech soundsphonology Smallest unit of sound that affects meaning Pat vs bat differ in one feature voicing it just differs if you allow a little air to escape Barn vs darn differ in place of articulation Sin vs tin differ in manner of articulation stop airflow Caps rooms edges same phoneme but pronounced slightly differently Phoneme can be comprised of more than one letter Words Symbols Not things themselves There39s lots of ways for communicating Conventional Carrot English vs Marchew Polish Completely different words but mean essentially the same thing Arbitrary but can have some iconic elements ex of a word that shows what it means Most of language is a code you need to learn a code to understand the meaning 0 Buzz hum woof o They give some indication as to what their meaning is 0 The word carrot or rabbit doesn39t tell you anything about those words Morphology Minimal unit of meaning Can be words a prefix or a suffix They have an independent meaning They are used as plural markers The s at the end of squirrels is a morpheme They can be free words vs bound pre fixes suffixes Derivational vs inflectional Write 9 writer vs write writg writing the ing is a morpheme in English but you can39t use it by itself has to be linked to something else because it39s a bound word Derivational how a noun gets changed to a verb or a verb gets changed to a noun Wash 9 washer Syntax Structures and rules of language Can govern how morphemes can combine Can govern how words can be ordered What words can precede or follow others Acceptability judgments not prescriptive grammar I saw him I seen him both acceptable Examples Word order but also verb agreement movement rules clauses Discourse Unit of language longer than a sentence Could be a monologue conversation etc Interaction with conversational partner Turn taking Communicative functions Language as a practice Language as a multimodal phenomenon thinking about how the body is usedinlanguage Use in space how language is situated in space Use of common ground shared knowledge Language as a cultural marker the practices of acquiring and using language help to allow the infant to become a participating member and identify with that culture Where does gesture fit Gesture is part of the structure of language Can replace words amp concepts Children will point to objects before they can label it in speech Gesture is part of the practice of language Demonstrates knowledge of interaction Relates to environment gesture grounds speech in the physical environment How can we study language Gathering data What language What sample representativeness 0 Do you want to look at 4 year olds teenagers and people in a nursing home Do you want to gather a sample representative of an entire culture subculture of a minority people with a profession etc What to gather 0 Audio video field notes demographics language experience How quickly to children learn language Does is matter whether there are more nouns or more verbs in the language spoken to children Experimental vs Spontaneous methodologies Experimental approach large amount of variables but conclusions you can draw are also limited Spontaneous you are looking at language use and practice give you a better sense of the existence of language as a living breathing creature What contextual variables affect the way that it39s used If you39re going to look at experimental approaches are the questions you will ask are appropriate for children Comprehension vs production Are you interested in how language is understood particularly with chHdren Required text How children learn language William O Grady 4 3 14 What is the infant learning Language Development Focuses on children acquiring the sounds structures and uses of language Focus on the ages and mechanisms of acquisition How the infant makes sense of the diff sources of information Relation to cognitive development When does a child come to have an understanding of numbers objects interacting in the world Tying development of cognition to the understanding of surface level features of language Differences based on structures of language Diff languages will have diff word orders diff structures diff ways of marking the features of the event that is being constructed Differences based on input Idea of the infant as some kind of a vessel Has to learn to interact with the world There is a physical world that is has to learn how to navigate Universals based on learning mechanisms or innate knowledge Language Socialization Socialization of language vs language as socialization There39s interaction with people in your community using the practices of those communities and the systems of interacting that are common an essential to your culture and those ways of interacting provide information of how the language should be used Language is a powerful tool in the socialization process The way you talk about other individuals may be marked in language The expectations of you as a fluid member of your culture come from language Focus on becoming a competent member of society Differences based on ways of interacting and processes of language use from one cultural context to another History of studying language development Diaries 0 Even Darwin kept one When their child said their first word Normative studies What is normal When should children be hitting certain milestones Where should your child be at which age When do they start producing words Etc Structuralist revolution Chomsky et al 0 Has been pursued and picked up by huge number of people Look for structural knowledge in adults and compare to children 0 Compares manifestation of structures in adults to children Theoretical accounts Behaviorist Language is not special language any other behavior Based on system of rewards You produce behavior you get a reward for it Focus on general learning mechanisms But how do children produce things they have never heard There39s a mismatch between the things we see children doing and the assumptions based on this theoretical perspective Nativist Noam Chomsky Poverty of stimulus 9 need for innate structure Too little info for children to learn all the things that they are producing Requires that children have some innate structure that they know something about common structures of language when they come into the world Requires anguage specific structures and learning Universal Grammar UG Every language has some way of expressing nouns and verbs of marking the agent and the patient or the subject and the object Language acquisition device LAD Setting one feature can have a cascade effect because language is so interrelated if you learn a specific rule about verbs it can give you further rules about adverbs But does child learning support these assumptions Humans have evolved to use language in different ways Children come into the world ready to learn language Children seem to develop a more sophisticated understanding of deep structures of language than they can possibly extract from the sentence they hear There is a surface level where you hear all the words in a sentence but there is also a deeper level that children seem to have a more specific understanding of SocialCognitive Some innate structure Children are good at pulling out information and allowing it to propagate through various levels of their behavior General learning mechanisms Linked to other cognitive development reaching different cognitive milestones Evidence that there is general learning in a child39s life simultaneously Concerned with input to the child and effect on language From Oats amp Schieffelin paper But input varies crossculturally and all children learn Child filters input They are doing some work at making the input that they receive and transforming that into a form that they can use There is some evidence that children39s memory increases as they get older The child is modifying the input from an environment that is easiest for them to access All of these theories agree that children come into the world ready to learnlanguage What do children bring to learning Does he have specific hypotheses about structure Does he have general biases about information processing Motivation to cooperate and share their thoughts Methods Observational Diaries Eg Deb Roy robot house that observed his child 24 hours a day Experimental Eg Wug test 0 To test if you39re smarter than a child Natural experiments Vary the environment or the thing to be learned Take advantage of cross inguistic differences Ask questions of child biases in learning 0 Differences based on differences in input Easier to learn certain types of structure 0 Common patterns despite differences in input Children learn the structure they hear Containment English vs fit Korean Relationship to concepts Children change the structures they hear Relation to cognitive development Universal patterns in acquisition of concepts Their system of understanding the world is developing alongside their linguistic ability 0 INON o UNDERBESIDE o BACKFRONT distinct A person or a house 0 BACKFRONT general Forms vary but order is same Children acquire these concepts in a similar order Learn appropriate ways to use language When How To whom Article Notes 4714 1056 AM Goldin ch 13 Chapter 1 Children must learn how units of their language are combined Infants need to learn particular features of the sound structure of their native language in order to be able to find words in the stream of talk that is addressed to them Long before infants use voice in changing ways they begin by crying reflexively and to make vegetative sounds All natural languages are structures A word does more than communicate information it stands for something It is a symbol dog is term in English for a furry four egged creature but there is nothing about the form of the word that makes it a good label for furry creature proto words ex child says brmmmbrmmm when he plays with a toy truck Does not always have to be verba gestures work as well child smacks lips when feeds her fish children who produce incorrect form foots have extracted plural morpheme s and added it to the noun foot Words in English contain relatively few morphemes Children speaking English do not learn morphemes of language until after they combine words into sentences Word order is an important device used by languages to convey who did what to whom Grammatical morphemes Chapter 2 Possible to describe what children do when they acquire language Harder task is to figure out how they do this Child39s language may change dramatically during development Chapter 3 Diff types of languages pose diff types of acquisition problems for learners Languages offer children diff patterns for structuring communication and these patterns have widespread effects throughout child39s language Across the globe children combine words into strings Children not only sensitive to regularities of form within sentence but also across sentences Ochs amp Schieffelin Language socialization socialization through the use of language and socialization to use language inguistic socialization concerns the learning of the use of language in a way to maintain and appropriately and progressively change one s position as member of society socialization function of input language is linked to the message content of utterances addressed to children Language of socialization age 4 and continues through adolescence Socialization is an interactive process Idea that reality is constructed through social interaction Distinguish study of language socialization from study of language acquisition Language acquisition understanding what constitutes linguistic competence at diff developmental points In contrast language socialization has goal of understanding how people become competent members of social groups and role of language in the process Process of acquiring language affected by process of becoming competent member of society Sapir Whorf particular grammatical forms and domains Anthropologists culture amp language deeply tied to one another Members of a social group have tacit understanding of grammatical discourse and lexical structures as tools for signaling particular social meanings eg that a particular activity or affective disposition is in play How and how much a child participates in routines vary with the age of the child and cultural configurations of caregiver chid interactions Baby talk displays simplification O Grady Ch 1 Small Talk Children can make and hear contrasts among dozens of speech sounds Most children start producing words between the ages of 8 and 12 months and many children have 10 words in their vocabulary by the age of fifteen months Meaningful words are the building blocks out of which we create sentences our principal message carriers By the age of 3 basics of sentence formation are in place Two ways to study child language Experimenta involves conducting experiments to test an idea Naturaistic observation of children39s speech in ordinary everyday situations This can include keeping a language diary Children start using words and learning meanings before they master all of a anguage s sounds Ch 7 How do they do it There is the popular idea that children learn language by imitating their parents but this won39t take us far because there are major parts of language that cannot be imitated such as sentences Unlike words sentences are created as the need arises It39s also unlikely that parents teach their children to speak by explaining things to them or by correcting them when they make a mistake Most of what we know about language is subconscious we know it but we don39t know that we know it and therefore cannot explain it to anyone else Recasts when a parent is trying to agree with the child and didn39t actually try to correct them but nonetheless sets a good example for them No matter how many recasts children heard it didn39t seem to speech up their learning of articles It seems that recasts are helpful but they are not necessary Parents speak to their children in a special way called motherese speech characterized by slow careful articulation and the use of basic vocabulary items short sentences and somewhat exaggerated intonation Children need to hear sentences that they can understand without knowing a lot about the language they39re trying to learn If the capacity for language is inherited then there should be such a thing as inherited language disorders too Think of the brain as a black box and the part of the black box concerned with language learning is sometimes called the acquisition device Grammar the knowledge of a language View 1 the acquisition device is just for language acquisition Bootstrapping the acquisition device gives the child some information to get started eg a language must distinguish between nouns and verbs if a word refers to a concrete object it39s a noun There are linguists who see language as a highly complex formal system with abstract rules and are many other linguists who think that language has to be understood in terms of its communicative function There is still a lot about language which needs to be learned Generalization involved drawing a general conclusion from specific cases Glietman amp Newport Reading Some parts of the capacity to learn language is innate but it is also learned Language function heavily affected by specific environmental stimulation 1 language learning proceeds uniformly within and across linguistic communities despite extensive variability of the input provide to individuals 2 the child acquires many linguistic generalizations that experience could not have made available Language use in children goes under elaboration between the ages of 2 5 Complex sentences appear and the function morphemes bound morphemes like ed etc make their appearance Alterations in linguistic environment Modest natural variations in Motherese o Simplified speech Radical change in the presence versus absence of any conventional linguistic input Similar radical change in the presence versus absence of the visual nonlinguistic world during language learning An Egyptian king Psammetichus placed 2 infants in an isolated cabin Experimental intent to resolve the question of which Egyptian or Phrygian was the first of all languages on earth Phrygian emerged as the pure reflection of the language of the soul the original innate language Hard of hearing children could create signed sentences that were structurally organized There is neither delay nor distortion in a blind child39s language growth Significant aspects of language development are dictated by our biology Linguistic earning events in the child39s life are the natural consequences of maturation rather than the outcomes of what children hear and see in the world around them A crucial factor is the age to which exposure to linguistic stimulation begins In order to communicate across language barriers individuals develop a rough andready contact language or pidgin This usually develops into a fuHanguage Language acquisition is a complex interaction between the child39s innate capacities and the social cognitive and linguistic supports provided in the environment 4714 1056 AM 4714 1056 AM 4714 1056 AM Anthro 147 Notes 4814 in final presentation don39t use real name of children or parents or where they live trying to protect the identity of the participants HW1 41514 1227 AM 400600 words on plan for quarter and specific plans for field work Some basic demographic information about the family age of child etc when are you going Are you visiting the families at the homes or a park Are there going to be specific roles assigned to certain people Expectation of child language and interaction based on readings thus far Submit ONE as a group Thursday start of class 12 questions multiple choice 15 min know major transition points in language big questions being asked if there are terms that are section headings pay attention to those and what that means based on reading AND lecture guest lecturer information will appear on the quiz Early language acquisition Imitation O grady goes through some of the possibilities and discusses the pros and cons for some of these different theories Proposal children learn language by imitating the sentences they hear Some role in word learning Can39t explain learning structure and contextual use Children are not good at repeating sentences with unfamiliar words and structures Children are good at selecting the info that they already know o If a child heard the sentence all the cats are sleeping aren39t theyquot o The child would say catseep They are repeating some things the parent just said but they are pulling out the parts of words that they are able to understand and reproduce They are omitting the morpheme s they are omitting this plural marker They seem to be imitating parts of it but not imitating the entire utterance Teaching Proposal parents teach children explicitly through example and correction Do children learn by explicit instruction Most knowledge of language structure is implicit and NOT explicit Know what is right but often not why 0 The dog bit him on the leg The dog bit him on a leg we know that this sentence is not correct We have a good sense of what kinds of structures are appropriate but don39t have a good idea of why Parent corrections are rare and more focused on content than structure A parent is much more likely to correct a child if they are mislabeling an object or an animal Children don39t incorporate corrections very well Setting a good example Proposal parents teach children implicitly by demonstrating the correct uses of language Recasts the child attempts something and the parent adopts what the child says but recasts it in a correct form Child he runned there Parent Yes he there Parents often repeat child errors they are trying to engage them in learning different things Child cose box Parent ok close box Do recasts help Naturalistic study Parents recast errors 35 of the time No immediate benefit of these types of corrections Experimental study slightly different point of view 45 yr old children fake verb in with an ING ending eg pelling then the child is asked about the past tense should be pold children exposed to recasting learned better than children who were given form from start 30 learned 0 Some children who were given an opportunity to experience recasting this was more effective or the others would already hear that contrast The recasts were most effective when not presenting truly novel information Simplifying language Proposal parents provide children with simplified language that aids their language Motherese baby talk the pitch is higher and it is more musical simpler vocabulary Slower more segmented Higher pitch Exaggerated pitch range and contrasts Restricted vocab Talk about the here and now vs the there and then Shorter sentences More direct commands and questions Does motherese help Infants show a preference for some features of motherese There are some acoustic features that are attractive to infants Not all cultures simplify their speech to children For ex in Schieffelin amp Oaks they talk about how children differ in their chid centeredness Accommodation 0 To help the comprehension of children 0 To the production of children 0 American families are high on the accommodation skill We do a lot of translating and simplification of our speech but this is not characteristic about all of the cultures in the world What do children need to be taught Some cultures language is something that children do on their own with little accommodation Some cultures children need to explicitly be taught how to walk Language Walking Variance on the ideas of child rearing and development of children39s competencies Motherese helpful but not necessary Accessible input Proposal children need input that is accessible to them at their point in development Relates to Zone of Proximal Development ZPD Lev Vygotsky Learning is greatest in ZPD ZPD changes as children learn Have concentric circles in the circle are things that the children can do on their own and the outside circle are things they can39t do conjugating verbs driving a car walking etc Then in the middle are things that the infantlearner can do with help and it is this circle with he states at the right stage or learning This is important to know that the zone is changing as the child is learning more things Infants learn best when language is linked to the here and now at the zoo look the zebra is eating at home Tomorrow we39ll go see the new zebra at the zoo Languageinven on deaf children with no access to sign language homesigners display some elements of structure more in week 8 blind children can39t see context of word use eg zebra at zoo but no delay in learning language 0 blind children seem to lack and important source of input as to what they early words mean but don39t show a delay in learning language visual words like look and see 0 they raise their hands when they hear ook look at the table vs touch the table Acquisition Device Acquisition device specific for language LAD Nativist view Chomsky children come into the world uniquely equip to learn language Acquisition device not just for language Week 4 It39s all statistics Week 3 Johnson guest lecture 41014 Brown Reading Introduced the concept of humans having an interaction engine Set of behaviors that contribute to human understanding of collaborative interaction Cooperation Helping prosociaity Humans have a prosocial stance they are more cooperative than they are competitive Humans are somewhat predisposed to help complete the goal of others The prosocial stance seems to be consistent among cultures Intentionality Understanding others as acting in meaningful non random ways Understanding communicative intentions the idea that if someone is communicating to us they are intending that we will understand this This understanding forms the basis of human linguistic interaction Reading others minds Theory of Mind ToM Seeing others as having different knowledgeperceptions from yourself The idea that others can hold different beliefs False belief task The idea is that there is some cognitive advance that occurs when the child is able to understand that someone can have a false belief about the world which may not be true Coordination of attention Concept of if we are looking at and experiencing the same thing The patterning of attention differs between cultures Establishing Common ground We both know X We share an experience about something Shared intentionality Humans cooperate with one another in species unique ways involving shared intentionality Shared intentionality behaviors that are intentional and social where goals and actions shared with another we stance Tomasello Cooperation in communication We are communicating Referential Triangle Joint attention JA to external object Triadic interaction parent child object Gaze checking You have a parent looking at something the infant might start out looking at the parent and then start looking at the object 9month revolution 915 months JA emerges Standard developmental trajectory Newborns they can orient to human faces Will prefer to look at human faces over other stimuli Imitate facial expression 2 months respond to smiling respond to gaze they will not follow gaze but they will be aware of when you are looking at them beginnings of socialization to turn taking Mother infant coordination varies culturally but some interactive coordination occurs 6 months follow gaze to object if object is 1 one seen 67 months vocal control increases babbling appears 0 this is important and is characterized by repeated syllables playing with sounds mimics prosody of local language A big milestone pointing 12 months awareness of others as intentional agents joint attention to external object referential triangle imperative precedes declarative Imperative pointing can mean I want that Declarative wants to draw mother39s attention Pointing doesn39t have to occur with the index finger Can point with flat hand elbow lip What39s the point of pointing First to acquire items 0 Gimme that Then to acquire information and to socially bond What39s that o Foow in labeling o Create learning opportunities 0 We39re sharing an experience Comparative study Tzetal Mayan community in Mexico Interactions with infants are minimal Infants are carried continuously restricted range Rossel Island Papua New Guinea Book Notes Brown Language sociaization process of socialization into language through language and its use in interaction Interactional patterns are also influenced by adult beliefs about childhood and child rearing including the contrast between childcentered versus situation centered societies ochs and schiefflin The developmentalist perspective Infants during their first year develop the ability to engage with others in joint attention The adults credit the infant with social qualities and communicative intentions Pointing is seen as crucial for the development of referential communication Infant pointing is achieved by particular response by the adult to the infant39s pointing labeling Labelling the object being pointed at helps the infant to learn the word but also leads to the understanding that others have communicative intentions Gaze and gesture contribute to joint attention between American mothers and children Mayan society Tzeltal in Mexico where interaction with infants during their first year is relatively minimal Society where interaction with infants is not a priority the other is on Rossel Island Papua New Guinea where interaction with infants is characterized by intensive faceto face communicative behaviors from shorty after the child39s birth Naturally occurring interactions of infants from both places were sampled at 5minute intervals to display snapshots of infant activity at different times of the day The Tzeltal infants more engaged in bodily functions 6 type of attention sharing behaviors involved in developmental trajectory to joint attention pointing reaching indicative gesturing gesturing towards object and signaling to interlocutor showing vocalizing gazing in general infant pointing appears around the range of 915 months joint attention is clearly achieved and the child displays a sense of the other s communicative intention to share attention over an object or event O Grady ch 2 amp 6 child39s first word usually happens around 12 months old segmentation taking the continuous stream of sounds that make up a sentence and break it down into words Two Learning Styles analytic stye breaking speech into its smallest component parts from the very beginning Gestalt stye memorize and produce relatively large chunks of speech that correspond to entire sequences of words in the adult language Stress is like a spotlight that draws a child39s attention to particular syllables making them easier to pick out Children focus on the strongweak pattern Ex DOCtor CANde DOGgie The Matching Strategy when an utterance contains a part that matches something you already know the matching part is a word and what39s left over is too Infection changes in the form of a word used to carry important bits of information U shaped learning line describing children39s success over time which resembles a U it starts high then dips down to reflect the overuse of the ed ending then rises up again as children learn the exceptions to the general rule Three ways to create words Conversion 0 Take a word that already exists and start to use it in a new way conversion 0 The verb throw can be turned into a noun That was a great throw Derivation 0 Adding an ending to an already existing word to derive a new word with a new type of meaning 0 er attaches to a verb teacher a person who teaches Compounding 0 Putting together 2 or more already existing words Mailbox blackboard Simplicity of Form Create new words from old words without changing their form Productivity create new words from endings that can be used with many different words Transparency of Meaning create new words whose meaning comes from the meaning of their parts Storemanstoreman Ch 6 O Grady Children are sensitive to the sound pattern of language even before they are born Minimal pairs showing children pairs of pictures whose names differ by just one sound Ex car and gar beat and feet Articuation being able to prounounce sounds Deletion dropping a tough sound Ex blanket 9 banket bump bup Substitution replacing it by an easier one Ex sing 9 ting substitution s t Assimilation a sound tries to become more like its neighbor in some respect Krogh et al Reading 2 categories of constraint constraints on the types of input over which statistical learning operates and constraints based on the state of the learner Artificial language mechanisms for statistical word segmentation transitional probability TP detection suggested that statistical learning via sensitivity to TPs is a possible mechanism contributing to language acquisition Using electroencephalography they measured newborns eventrelated potential ERP negativities to the first second and third syllables in the words Demonstrates that statistical learning is functional even in newborn infants and perhaps contributes to language acquisition even prior to birth Natural Language Sequences of grammatically correct and semantically meaningful sentences in natural speech Infants participated in a post famiiarization test Compared infants listening time to speech in which words and part words were embedded in either simple English or matched nonsense frames Establishing a link between sound and meaning is an essential aspect of language acquisition especially for young language learners Infants Infants can discriminate between structured and random sequences Co occurent statistics inform the observers of the likelihood of 2 events occurring togheter but leave the observer uncertain of the likelihood of an event occurring given that the other has taken place Conditional probability statistics reduces the uncertainty by measuring the predictive power of one event with respect to another Aduks Visual statistical learning in adults appears to produce flexible representations that can be generalized to new situations Constraints on statistical learning Auditory information is conveyed temporally whereas visual information is arrayed spatially Emberson et al posited that visual statistical learning improved with the slower rate of presentation betcuase it was less temporally demanding on the visual system To explain differences in statistical learning ability acorss development researchers have appealed to domain genera maturational constraints on perception and memory Statistical learning is automatic in that statistical computations seem to be carried out without conscious intent and often without awareness that any structure was learned But it is not automatic in that it operates better over attended versus unattended input Reason for flexibility and constraints on statistical learning is because the environment contains both variance and invariance organisms need a way to flexibly adapt and generalize to different contexts Conclusion Statistical learning is a means of uncovering structure in complex environmental input Operates in both auditory and visual domains 41514 1227 AM 41514 1227 AM 41514 1227 AM Anthro 147 Notes 41814 251 PM 41514 Ch 6 Talking the Talk O Grady Stages of Sound Production In utero attending to the cadence of speech intonationa contours 23 months cooing 46 months producing various sounds babbling begins 7 months babblingfully developed 1018 months producing first words Determining a Child39s Ability to Distinguish Words minimal pairs linguist N Shvavhkin the minimal difference that changes the difference of the word ex cat vs gat you can change a sound that doesn39t change the meaning techniques contrast similar words or sounds and see if the child can tell them apart study results children can HEAR sounds before they can produce them voiced sounds require vibration of vocal chords which sounds are voiced all vowels are voiced You produce them by opening your mouth positioning your tongue in the right way vowels a e I o u voiced nassals m n ng voiced gliced y w voiced liquids I r voiced ptkfsshchhth unvoiced bdgvzzhjth these are essentially minimal pairs in English 0 tongue is in the same place only difference in voicing unvoiced sound you don39t need vibration of the vocal chords Accommodation when children cannot produce a sound they must resolve the problem substitution deletion Deletion deletion of final consonant instead of saying give 9 giv deletion of one sound in a consonant cluster sl br dr cl sm instead of saying bread 9 ead deletion of nasal m n when with p t k stamp ant uncle 9 ucle deletion and reinseration of s next to another consonant spaghetti 9 pas ghetti Syllable Stress in Words primary stress receives the most stress secondary stress receives some stress examples STOP primary stress CHILdren unconstiTUtio na Substitution replacing a sibilant sounds you make my letting air escape through your mouth and replace those with a stop p t k fbdg transforming liquids I r into glides wy denasalization m amp n 9 b or d fronting preference for consonants made in the front of the mouth p b m f v produced in the lips assimilation making one sound like another baby but children may say bee bee What is happening here Kitty cat 9 ki ca Deletion of the last syllable In kitty where is the stress syllable At the beginning at the ki Story 9 stowy Transforming liquids 9 glides Stop 9 top Removing consonant Try 9 tie Consonant cluster 0 Bump 9 bup Guest Lecturer Phonological Development Phonetics study of speech sounds production acoustics perception Phonology study of the systematic rules of sound patterns in a language in the mind of a speaker Focus most research on earlier years of language acquisition 624 months Concerned on how kids learn the sounds and perception What do kids bring to the table Is it innate or is it learned Language acquisition starts in the womb The fetus has access to speech signals Auditory system is already function before birth So what can be heard in the womb Baby can hear heartbeat of the mother and can hear the maternal voice most specifically prosody speech rhythm stress sentence melody Think of what you hear when you39re swimming underwater Starting to categorize Biggest problem a kid has to deal with is learning how to categorize Speech signal is a continuous space Languages categorize different portions of this space in different ways carved up differently Variation in the way categories of sounds are produced Speech categories Cross inguisticay there isn39t just one way to produce a t sound depending on where your tongue is placed on your mouth Dental alveolar retroflex When does categorization occur By 10 months difficult to discriminate between contrasts that do not exist in their native language For ex Hindi vs English Summary Lack of experience causes loss of ability to distinguish between sound contrasts not present in a given language Language experience can also maintain sometimes facilitate the ability to discriminate between sounds So by the end of the first year infants already know which sounds are contrastive and which aren39t Helps direct attention to the differences that matter Studying infants We take behavioral measures as a means of testing what infants know or don39t know Listening times Looking times Number of headturns Amplitude of sucking on a pacifier Heart rate Event reated potentials Case Study Flapping in American English The English plurals s Cat s gt cats but dog s 9 dogz this is now voiced phonetic transcription Pura s can be produced as s or 2 depending on the preceding sound Flapping In North American English t and d are pronounced with a flap D in O Grady also known as a tap Between 2 vowels When the following vowel is unstressed o Eg meeting 9 meeDing Words can be pronounced in more than one way Eg pat and pad inflected as padding D Is neither t or d Infants need to learn these sound alternations Familiarization Sounds like you39re talking to a baby If infants listen longer to familiar items evidence of segmentation ie they know that pat and patting are different Summary expt 1 amp2 12month olds can associate a word produced with a flap to a dword but they cannot associate a word produced with a flap to a t word Experiment 3 Visual Fixation stimuli tap and d in aDa context measured difference in listening time between same and switch trial Summary Expt 13 12 month olds can associate a flap form to a d word they cannot associate a flap form to a t word Experiment 4 we know that 12 month olds can39t map flap forms to t words but we also know that adults can so when does this ability develop Sociolinguistic factors children aren39t just learning the sounds of their language chid direct speech also has a role in providing cues to socia indexica information Wrapping up by the end of the first year infants already hone in on the contrasts that exist in their language and they have difficulty discriminating contrasts that don39t exist 41714 Guest Lecture statistical earning detection of regularities in ones environment without an explicit awareness or intention to learn pattern detection if vital for figuring out the world brand new baby has to figure out the visual world when a baby is 7 months the auditory system is sufficiently well developed so the baby can hear what39s going on inside the womb the fetus can hear the mom talk speech is important for segmentation when you hear a speech stream it s difficult to find words in a foreign country but if you hear it often enough you begin to notice reoccurring patterns and this is statistical learning infants are rational constructivist learners infants learn patterns that make sense constructivist how you start with nothing and then add more to that universal grammar there is already something in the brain that detect patterns in the speech stream this approach says that baby don39t need to be born with knowledge they can pick it up infants can39t give you verbal responses can39t tell you yes or no behaviorally they are challenged but they can tell us what they find interesting they do this simply by looking at it using looking at one place or another as the dependent variable variable they are collecting data about Play sounds for the baby and will record where she looks around the room to see how well she can make sense of the sounds How do you know if the baby heard the words After familiarization the baby is bored so when they are done learning something they show a novelty preference Transitional probabilities the ways in which units cohere together based on probabilities how often they were heard together The probability of the transition for t 9 p in tupiro If babies can show us evidence of statistical learning then the babies are able to recognize when the elements are associated with one another and can keep track of common associations and they can use this ability to find units and patterns We think statistical learning is used for language acquisition Neonates means newborn method is called event related potential ERP Will measure brain activity Want the baby to be asleep They can hear and learn when they39re asleep They don39t move around and are easier to test Add a new syllable in place of the old ones there will be a brief spike in brain activity Even newborn babies brain recognizes when there39s a regulation of a statistically defined pattern 8 month old study unfamiliar natural language babies seemed to recognize familiar Italian words and then scrambles words or sounds statistical learning also works with real speech that babies hear in the real world and not just computer generated speech another study with 8 mo olds How do we know statistical learning deals with language acquisition Tested babies with familiarization stream speech but instead of testing for nonwords or scrambled words she took words and played them in sentences for kids Does the baby recognize that it sounds like a word to them And then other parts don39t sound like words to them Yes they recognize the words vs partwords Statistical learning yields in the babies mind something like a word and when they hear that word again they think yeah that makes sense to me 17 mo old study Switch design associate one word with an object and another with another object and then you switch them around Babies look longer at the switch when words are associated This is important for real world word learning Auditory SL statistical learning is not limited to speech Think about baby39s ability to pay attention to patterns you might wonder about visual patterns Visual statistical learning Very difficult to distinguish the pattern Implicit earning you get the sense something is going on and your guess is correct Explicit earning you know what39s going on and why this is correct Babies can39t tell us what the pattern is They provide evidence from their looking patterns that their learning is implicit Used a ooking time method that relies on tendency of babies to get bored and perk up attention when they see something new Transition from things that are familiar 9 unusual lead to differences in looking times They are the dependent measure in the study Babies can notice patterns they can do visual statistical learning Domain general statistical learning device Not specific to one kind of stimulus work for audio and visual Function with the onset of visual experience Exp 1 do infants identify TPs transitional probability in visual sequences The units organized by TPs Have 3 kinds of test sequences The babies should look at the random set Week 4 Notes 42414 1132 PM 42214 for field notes if you need to split up the videos explain this on your field notes ethnographer discuss if the child points to something in a different room note what they may be pointing to that the camera does not pick up If the phone rings dad comes in make sure to note who else is present in the environment If mother talks to grandma on phone talk to how mother shifts when she39s talking to grandma vs child Note if the child tries to talk to us try not to encourage them to tell you long stories Recap on last weeks guest lecturer Adam Chong Lack of experience 9 loss of ability to distinguish between sound contrasts not present in a given language Three contrasting sounds three different forms of t and in English we only recognize one Children are able to hear differences from other languages this happens for about 10 months and then they loose that ability Ability to hear while inside the womb Mostly what the mother is saying and the underwater sounds They can hear tones The R amp L sound in Japanese is not really discovered Infants born with ability to discriminate between sounds not in native language Children aren39t just learning the sound of their language Child directed speech also has a role in providing due to social indexical information What39s a flap When t sounds like a d Pat 9 patted and t sounds a bit like d Why do we call it a flap Can change the sound without it changing the meaning The flap is what your tongue does Are children able to hear the flap in patted and recognize it39s from pat They thought that pad and patted were related words They didn39t see pat as familiar when they heard patted They also studied this in 15 year olds they are still having trouble with it Johnson Auditory SL is not limited to speech We see something similar with VSL visual Relationship between ASL and VSL Infants can learn patterns in sequences This may be how children are acquiring language Ongoing stream of sound at some point you realize a pattern going on Statistical learning is for language acquisition Infants are rational constructive learners But he doesn39t really agree with this Rational constructive earner they learn patterns starting to build what reality looks like They are rationally constructing reality His original belief is that there39s this qeneralized mechanism Children don39t need universal grammar but can learn through recognizing regularities statistical learning All the researchers are trying to make sense of universal grammar Transitional probability the probability of seeing a certain patterning of words The ways in which units are at the syllable level How often words are heard together What is a word A word is a symbol Ow Mmhmm Uhhuhuhuh Gimme o Is it a word or a communicative noise Do they fall into standard grammatical categories 0 Are they word substitutes Symbo communicates a meaning or concept A word has Phonological form Meaning Grammatical category Either a noun verb adjective Grammatical distribution Occurring in a grammatical context Morphological structure sometimes What is a word meaning Predictable relation between a phonological form and an objecteventrelationship in the world referent Social convention Concept Modes of signification Peirce Index form has a natural association or inferential relation to meaning Ex of a natural association smoke You see smoke it39s an index that there is probably fire present More examples smoke thunder footprints Icon form resembles meaning Examples buzz hum bang gesture for flying 0 Symbol form of sign is arbitrary no direct relationship to meaning Children learn words FAST A conservation estimate of the size of an adult English speaker39s vocabulary 60000 words First 10 English Words In O Grady we are focusing on American children learning English People Mommy Dada Baby Gramma Animals dog duck kitty Small objects ball keys bottle truck Substancesfood milk cheese juice Obtaining goals hi more no Social interaction peeka boo byebye Spatial terms up down on Not everything children learn early on are what we as adults consider words they will often learn things as expressions I do it Gimme So big Oh boy Gou out All gone Good girl 42414 Children39s first words in English are usually nouns What counts as a word What does a child treat as a word What kinds of things can serve as words Gestures o Namy 2001 taught arbitrary words gestures non verba sounds and pictograms to young infants and asked if they could treat these things as words Tones o Woodward and Hoyne 1999 used a squeaker o The youngest infants 13 to 18month olds learned the novel mapping across all symbol types Older children 2026 month olds did not 0 At 20 months infants are learning that people name things with phonological words not gestures pictures Differences in early word learners referential children have lexicons dominated by object names expressive children have fewer object labels more names for people and socia reguatory phrases This is a continuum not two different categories of learners Noun bias Nouns are over represented in children39s early vocabularies Input bias or perceptual bias Is the speech directed towards children overwhelmingly focused on nouns Input parents Western prompt children to produce nouns and name things eg what39s this Perceptual Cohesion 0 Children are more likely to pay attention to objects that have a discrete boundary where an entire object is more likely to be labeled then a part of an object Continuity 0 Children expect things to not disappear and reappear Biases that children will show very early on Solidity 0 They will collide with one another not blend with one another Things have solid boundaries Contact 0 An inanimate object shouldn39t move spontaneously unless it39s contacted by something else Trying to understand the assumptions children make about inanimate object Underextensions Words used for a more restricted set of referents than is appropriate in adult speech Ex if they referred to their dog as Rex that is an underextension These are less noticed than overextensions duck act of pushing duck off edge of bathtub car vehicles seen from particular window in home phone only when telephone rings cookie only when in highchair Overextension words used for a more general set of referents than is appropriate might be linked in ways that do not form a natural set 0 moon moon half of a grapefruit hangnail dishwasher dial lemons dog dogs sheep horses What causes these errors Are children39s categories different than adults and sometimes bizzare Are they using the terms that have in creative ways pacehoders for words they don39t yet know Comprehension errors far fewer than production errors How would you ask if a child thinks that cat dog Or is cat applying to dog How do they test that Child uses the wrong word that likely stands out this is why they are usually more noticeable Do children try to communicate beyond their own category These are fundamental questions about relationship between language and thought How do children learn language Easy answer show them the thing and tell them the name that stands for it But it39s really not so easy radical indeterminacy of translation Quine In theory this is not so straightforward of a task Learning nouns 3 learning biases About what words refer to Whole object assumption gavagai whole animal not a part or a property Type assumption gavagai kind of animal not single individual Basica level assumption gavagai animals that look like or move like the model one not all animals or dissimilar animals Mutual exclusivity Things sound have only one label Apply a new label to an unnamed object clearly this can be overturned in bilingualism for example but it is an initial bias Other things that help bootstrapping taking the language that you already know and using that to help you make guesses with other words in a particular utterance that you don39t know Using frames consisting of known words to narrow the scope of possible meanings for unknown words Possible frames Kubar I want kubar I want to kubar I want to eat kubar He poured kubar around the park Look The kubar is eating grass She is kubaring She kubared onto the couch Alignment Pairing items that differ in the dimension of interest Highlights difference Other interesting things Preposition errors of omission vs commission 0 Cut knife or cut for knife for cut with knife demonstrates to the child that something should go there but they don39t know what pronoun reversa children may use the word you to refer to themselves and me to refer to the other person why are you and me hard to learn Child hears you when people are talking to himher and Ime when people are talking about themselves 50 reverse pronouns sometimes How do children learn new words Cross situationa learning multiple exposures 0 Fast mapping single trial learning Children can learn from a single exposure to a word if it39s very clear Smith ampYu 2008 Presented 1214 month olds with pairs of 6 novel objects and 6 novel words Pairings were ambiguous within trials but unambiguous across trials Infants learned labels after seeing pairings in multiple trials Measured by gaze to named object Children looked more at the named object they learned across these different presentations of learning opportunities Quantity model If children hear a word enough times in enough contexts they will learn it Quantity of parent speech predicts vocabulary growth Giving more learning opportunities Quantity of parent input matters But is it the whole story Young children can39t make full use of linguistic cues How do children learn their first words in these messy environments Models of word learning Cross situationa Effect of repeated exposures Yu and Smith Epiphany Quality of parent input matters not all exposures equally useful children can learn from a single exposure visual and social cues are important Quality of the visual and social context some seem better than others some contexts seem more transparent provide more support for word learning however not sure what variables infants are using learning opportunities varying Week 5 Notes 5314 551 PM Transcription codes Directions on how to use Inqscribe Inqscribe software problem that39s online to use for transcription You can get a free version but you cannot save your work You go onto website upload the video onto the site and you can see it on the left On the right you type in your transcription You can slow down the rate of speech for anything that is hard to hear As you39re listening you type in your transcription and it will put in time stamps Copy and paste it into a word document Write down what children or mother say and their communicative gestures pointing to things for gestures just want a description of what39s going on then in the next HW you will categorize those gestures Each group member must transcribe 10 minutes of the interaction There must be a overlap should be 2 minutes one member transcribes the first 10 minutes next one transcribes last 2 minutes of previous everyone transcribes the same 2 minutes of the members section and then transcribes the next 8 minutes etc Then discuss the differences 42914 What can increase children39s early learning of nouns These are the words that children first seem to learn they are concrete and subject to cognitive restraints We know that the quantity of parent input matters quantity of speech is a predictor of child39s early learning There is a correlation between how many words a child hears a day vs how much they are learning When you look at a population of children the amount of speech they hear early on people talking to them interacting in different way affects then 1020 Young children can39t make full use of linguistic cues Very early on young children can39t make full sense of linguistic cues You need some amount of knowledge of the different words in your language Giving better learning opportunities Cartmi s study Quality of parent input matters One of the videos was good for the meaning of book because there was a book and was pointing to it for the other video there was no book in sight so it39s harder to learn the word even if you repeat the word many times if they don39t understand the meaning of that word Not all exposures equally useful Children can learn from a single exposure Fast mapping Quality of the visual and social context One of these context is better than the other Some contexts seem more transparent easy to understand Provide more support for word learning However 0 Not sure what variables infants are using Use success of word learning opportunity to indicate quality Operationalizing the measure of quality Human stimulation paradigm Using us to generate data about how the world works The likely hood of guessing what the word is using that as a measure of quality Ease of guessing matters more than number of exposures High quality instances drive learning of novel words in adults This study showed that it took the natural variations in how clear the presentation of a word was and varied those in a sequence This study found that you have to have a highly transparent instance in order to learn Each participant was shown 5 muted videos with the same nonsense word eg vash No cumulative learning from low informative videos such as the video with the girl on the stairs but no book in sight Highly informative videos necessary for learning to occur eg the video when the mom asked the child to get the book from the bookcase But is this how CHILDREN learn What role do parents have in word learning Children were videotaped in their homes from about a year to when they start to enter school Stimulus construction Most frequent concrete whole object nouns Test items most frequent 10 words for each parent Fillers 5 non concrete nouns from each o Eg tomorrow two outside 810 video clips like the ones we viewed in class Does quality vary Quality varied across clips Average quality varied across parents Quality predicts vocabulary Not a perfect relationship but it39s predicting about 12 of the variance in children39s vocabulary How much parents talked was also a predictor Maybe parents who talk more produce more transparent opportunities But found out that39s not the case parents who talk more don39t provide better input Important to note they are trying to build this model from the bottom up SES socio economic status and parent input SES correlates with the quantity of parents SES does not predict quality Quantity DOES relate to SES What makes a good word earning opportunity Object presence easier to guess when the object is there your accuracy is significantly higher Parent visual attention are parents looking at the object while she39s abeHngit It39s easier to guess things if a parent is looking at it when she39s talking about it Gesture does this increase the accuracy of guessing Yes If you look across time for high informative and low informative it isn39t that the object isn39t there the whole time sometimes the object will come into video then goes out Time charts interesting how the specific context for a particular word may be much more narrow if you hear a word you are looking to see what happened right then Verbs Recognizing patterns Talked about in O Grady book Important part of how children are learning the structures of the language they will speak Marcus et al familiarized infants to strings of syllables with AAB pattern Tested on AAB vs ABB pattern Familiarization strings of 3 reps 0 Ga ga ti Ge ge ti Ga ga ti Test 12 strings 0 Re re nu re re nu VS na Ii i Na Ii Ii same set of syllables but with a reversed pattern What did they find They would play these strings and see how long infants looked at them They looked longer at the AAB strings when the strings were different they looked longer at those They can differentiate between AAB and ABB Comprehension of structure precedes production Tested 15 and 18 month infants on comprehension of is V ing Used is vs can can can precede a verb but not in this frame Infants listened longer to the passage containing the correct structure than to ones containing can v ing This was not a familiarization task when you get them bored with something then present them with something new Not what happened here they were more interested in the ones they were more familiar with The point is do these show a difference Is there something that they39re picking up on where they know that these are not the same As structure develops utterances get longer MLU Mean length of utterances Looks at number of morphemes in average utterance at a particular time point 0 shoe 1 morpheme 0 give shoe 2 morphemes 0 two shoes over there 5 morphemes because the plural s morpheme counts in shoes o I wanna put new shoes on the dos 11 morphemes because of wanna and plural on the shoes and dolls 5114 Some questions what kinds of structures are there do children learn a series of small rules or several big ones What things are easy and come early What things are hard and come late Subjects come before verbs which come before objects linear orders that you hear the words in a sense Grammatical categories verbs nouns adjectives The labels what these things are Constituent structure not so much what these labels are but the relationships higher up in this hierarchy The idea that a constituent may have things dealing with a noun and things dealing with a verb The grammatical structure There are different levels of structure Things about the literal order that children hear in a sentence The grammatical categories can relate to each other in ways that are meaningful in a sense What do children39s earliest strings of words look like Hi go more These are called pivot words words around which you can pivot This is a stationary construction Pivot words hi go more Open words are the words that children substitute into these blanks Pivot Grammar Children are extending the length of their utterances early on by using a limited number of frames with open slots that can be filled by different nouns or verbs Item based learning learning a frame that is an item and then you learn what can go with that You can predict what new combinations the child might make Is this all you need May be a guess of how children are forming their first constructions They will use these frames over and over swapping in and out new words How do you extend beyond these frames Think of those as pivot word and open slot We know children transition from this to 9 open slot to open slot Children have an understanding that objects go after verbs and subjects go before verbs They are doing something where they are abstracting above the pivot words seeing what things have in common Learning verbs Do children learn one big rule about verbs eg in English put subject in front of the verb or many little rules specific to different verbs Some evidence that children may begin with small rules and then generalize Verbs have different requirements Agents that are doing things or things that are done to children understand this distinction very early Verbs tell you something different about the ways they should be used Take different numbers of arguments have different numbers of slots Different kinds of verbs intransitive transitive ditransitive More likely to keep the frame they heard the verb in the same then they are to change it There39s an understanding that verbs have stricter rules Verb that takes 1 argument transitive verb There39s a subject but the action isn39t done to someone else I am doing something I am sleeping I am crawling You can39t crawl something else but you can crawl Transitive someone that does the action and something that it affect The pictures are identical but implying different things They use the information that39s present in the frames One involves one person doing something to another person second one is not something that is done to someone Children can pick up on this really early and can use it to look at novel verbs Is there a processing constraint telegraphic speech if there was a dog at the park you would say dog part is a shortening of a longer sentence do children under produce elements in a sentence because they have too many cognitive demands o Probaby but they do so selectively Omit unnecessary items first Children are not simply overloaded they are make strategic choices with limited means Forming questions Difficult for children to understand the closeness in linear order is not the same with the association of who is doing a particular feature Someone is pushing the duck Pooh knows who Can you ask him who Asking about the subject of the sentence is not a problem But asking about the object of the sentence is a problem When children are making questions they will make systematic errors Passive sentences are particularly problematic 5314 551 PM Week 6 Notes 5914 132 PM 5614 At averaqe when do children start qesturinq Before they are a year old 812 months Start to gesture before they start to use words Gesture is now being used as a way to identify speech delay A child is explaining that she believes there is less water in the container on the left because the level of the water is lower Her qesture is noteworthy because she is producing a gesturespeech mismatch A mismatch is very specific The information that39s being communicated in speech which is different then what is being conveyed in gesture Embem why can you understand it without speech It39s a universal within a culture Homesiqner s qestures resemble their parents qestures True or false False Their gestures are more complex and anguage ike than their parent gestures When a task is difficult describing something from memory or reasoninq through a complex problem qesture increases When you39re looking at someone talking and the task becomes increasingly difficult they gesture more Gesture can help reduce a cognitive load Gesture is just as much for cognition as for communication Gesturinq can reflect thought and learning but it cannot influence it False Gesture p is not sign language doesn39t follow rules is produced with speech 90 of the time is rarely combined into long sequences like sentences emerges spontaneously and is hard to stop Gesture is part of language Doesn39t rely on visual input Blind people gesture you39re NOTjust learning to gesture by watching other people gesture This is something spontaneous Tightly linked to speech timing as you produce contours in speech gestures seem to follow those When speech is disrupted gestures seem to be disrupted as well these 2 together seem to form an integrated linguistic system Gesture serves multiple functions Gesture is both for the self and others We gesture on the phone Kinds of gesture Gesture Types Deictic Conventional embem putting your hand out to tell someone to stop Representationa making a walking gesture with your fingers Emphatic really accenting the contours of his speech Gesture integrates with speech Over first year of life children begin to produce gestures that are Synchronous with speech produced at the same time Semanticay integrated with speech Gesture and Speech Relationship to speech Reinforce Disambiguate Add information to speech Which of these would constitute a gesture speech mismatch The two of them provide more information then either of them does on its own Gesture often communicates things not found in speech Sometimes children produce gestures that communicate info that is not found anywhere in their speech Supplement relationship Gesture speech mismatch Children who produce more mismatches are those who are about to get the problem correct 5814 Arguments and predicates Arguments are the main players in the action Doer the subject the agent the person the animal etc whoever is performing the action Doer done to Giver given recipient Predicates are the action Verbs other verb ike things These are the actions that are occurring eg the girl sang girl argument singing predicate The girl hit the ball to the boy the girl argument hit predicate ball argument to the boy argument Give predicate me arg the ball argument Give mepredicate the ball argument so I can throw it predicate Pointing indicates an object but if you made a gimme gesture you would gloss that as give it to me The main point of the article was Specific types of qesture speech combinations predict specific kinds of structures in speech Which of these is NOT a qesture speech combination discussed in the article Clarifying They talked about reinforcing disambiguating and supplementary Mama point to cup would be an example of what kind of qesture speech combination Supplementary What kind of structure is this Argument Argument Mama is not a verb and pointing to a cup is not a verb If the child pointed to a cup and said gimme then we could call that an argument predicate We are looking at the meaning behind the gesture Speaking is also an action The act of communicating is always a predicate but you need to focus on WHAT the child is communicating If the child points to the television when action is going on this is considered a predicate We usually assume that points refer to objects more than actions Which of these is an example of an argument predicate structure Both b and c Fall downquot point to fallen lamp on floor And ate upquot this is the predicate show empty plate object Which of these is an example of a predicate predicate structure let me this is also a verb stirring gesture stirring is one verb Gesture often communicates things not found in speech From the article we see that these combinations can Precede and predict linguistic changes Complementing vs supplementing speech In the video about Halloween costume cape motions and showing the fork were reinforcing And talking about red tights red shoes Example of supplementing speech When the parent was asking what was I holding And looks as if she was holding the pitch fork Gesture during language development Gesture precedes and predicts developments in early language Vocabulary Pointing vocabuary predicts vocabulary growth we will look at this in assignment 4 how many different things did the child point to Think about the total number of different meanings that the child is conveying May be influenced by parent pointing Also by pointing children may be seeking input When the child is communicating they are affecting the conversation between them and the caregivers They may be seeking information from the caregiver o Parent is providing the verbal label to what the child is indicating 0 One way the child can change their learning environment 0 Children can use gestures to communicate about the work and to seek more information about it Ozcaliskan and GoldinMeadow Read this for the quiz Background observation children39s earliest sentence ike gesture speech combinations precede and predict the age at which children start producing two word utterances in speech this was before the study Main research question Do children39s gesture speech combinations predict specific kinds of sentence ike constructions that will emerge in speech Participants 40 kids Design They looked at 40 kids over time longitudinal study Ages and length of observations 14 18 22 months each video session lasted 90 minutes finding 1 number of gestures grew over time in all cases the number of combinations grew identified 3 different types of combinations in qesture are you conveying 2 diff arguments argument argument eg Mommy point to cup argument predicate open hold up jar predicate predicate eg help me twisting gesture and in speech argument argument Mommy cup argument predicate open it predicate predicate help me open it Finding 2 more argumentargument combos produced in GS than in speech alone at 18 months as the child get s older they will produce more in speech alone as adults we produce more predicate predicate Discussion potential problems Group based data vs individual trajectories Some children may not follow this pattern they may be producing first in speech and then gesture So as a follow up they looked at the individual data to see at what age they produced different things Conclusions Children produced constructions first in GS and then in SS Remaining questions what other kinds of constructions might show similar effects Is it true for supplementary GS relationships Reinforcing combinations pointing to a truck and saying truck Gesture speech combinations may be linked to specific constructions in speech Take home message gesture selectively predicts language development Week 7 Notes 51614 122 PM 51314 Prosodic contours can be used to distinguish huh from huh the things that are different deal with where the pitch goes up or goes down what method did Bryant and Barrett use showed parents pictures of infants in different situations reaching for a light socket or standing up for the first time and asked how they would speak to the infants baby talk treating infants as conversational partners interpreting actions that are communicative adjusting methods of speaking that are simplified 0 all of the above 0 These are things they mention within the list People in some cultures avoid speculating on what infants are thinking because thoughts assumed to be unknowabe true Bryant study what methodology did they use They showed ID speech vs AD speech Is baby talk universal Is it necessary No they didn39t even talk about it Solomon look at different types of baby talks in different societies and looked at autism Seemed like baby talk wasn39t useful in all the situations Did it use the same definition of BT as the Bryant article Was it all prosodic contours or were there other things going on Solomon was talking about baby talk as a broader phenomenon wasn t look at acoustic but other features of interaction that was accommodating speech towards infants BT wasn39t useful for autism Baby talk is not universal it varies by culture In papa new guinea Was it necessary Not necessary People in different cultures talk to people in different ways Even if you don39t speak a particular language they are better at interpreting speech directed towards infants good evidence that people are clarifying their speech to infants 51514 Syntax thinking about words what do words mean what does the child mean when they say a particular thing Morphoogy different parts of words and how the presence or absence of those tell you about what the child thinks of linguistic order Word order Constituent structure what pieces of an utterance goes together if something moves around then what would it take with it Language clustered together Some areas of linguistics Phonetics and phonology the study of speech sounds and sound systems Syntax the study of sentence structure About rules and the structure that cancan39t be used Semantics and pragmatics the study of meaning Pragmatics is about language use You can take the same sentence and use it in different contexts Phonetics the study of speech sounds If one sound is next to another does it change that sound Voicing s versus 2 Your mouth configuration is the same but whether or no engaging your vocal folds Sue versus 200 Bills versus bees Phonetics doesn39t deal if these sounds are meaningful this is the study of the rules that govern the use of different sounds Phonology the study of sound systems What are the allowable sounds in a language What ways can they be combined Bat vs pat b and p are two different phonemes What sounds are allowable in the language you are learning Syntax the study of sentence structure Syntax is about system and rules but more about structure on the rearranging units of meaning level I saw the woman with the telescope I forgot how good cheese tastes ambiguous as to whether this is about the tasting or if it about the cheese Syntax allows you to have infinitely expanded structures Expand and embed things within sentences is about syntactic rules Semantics the study of linguistic meaning John believed that the Earth is round John doubted that the Earth is round They are different doesn39t deal with structure Deals with the word put in there and the semantic meaning of the word Pragmatics the study of language use More about the context that you use those words The other school On UCLA you may think of USC But if you were at Santa Monica college you may not read it that way Using contextual information to interpret the meaning of the sentence yet the sentence is the same Descriptive vs prescriptive Me and JamesJames and I went to the store Who did Peter talk to To whom did Peter talk Syntax allows you to have infinite creativity with language Syntax has rules and is hierarchical You have 2 things more closely associated with each other Most intuitive piece of syntax is word order SVO subject verb object English SOV subject object verb Korean Turkish VSO verb subject object Arabic Check to see if your child switched word order More about Morphology Morphemes smallest units of meaning Two kinds Free morphemes things that can exist independently without being combined with anything dog hippopotamus Bound morphemes prefix suffix infix have to be attached to something else The plural s o The smaller units that are talked about morphology Morphemes are meant to be combined 3 types Compounding 2 or more free morphemes Combining adjective nouns and verbs Something s that are once combined don39t get separated again This is fairly rare Derivational bound free morphemes Bound and free morphemes combine to change meaning often grammatical category 0 When you think about the bound morphemes they are usually productive Inflectional bound free morphemes Bound and free morphemes combine but never change grammatical class Constituents and hierarchical structure Constituent group of words that form a syntactic unit Smallest possible constituent in an utterance is a word Something that is a unit Are children making errors in an argument In a sequence that contains a verb with something else Think about the levels of structures that children are making errors Week 8 Notes 52214 324 PM 52014 What can we learn about language development from looking at children with no language input Two studies of late exposure Newport 1990 Deaf individuals differing in when they were first exposed to sign language Curtiss 1974 Is there a critical period for learning language After they have aged out of that period of time is it more difficult for them to learn language Isolated or lost children Children have no usable language model Deaf and have no access to sign language homesign Socially isolated and hear no speech eg Genie Some are socially we adjusted they are loved and hugged others abused being isolated not being interactive Not able to use language that surrounds them as a model Studying the kinds of language they produce can tell you The effects of not getting enough input early on What children bring to the table themselves Homesign Kind of gestural language invented and used by a single individual Single child using gestures to communicate outwardly but not producing the same system Profoundly deaf children whoa re not taught a sign language Parents encourage them to learn to read lips and vocalize Try to improve their hearing where they could access the language their parents were speaking They were trying to mainstream the children didn39t want them to join a different community away from them Didn39t try to isolate the children from their language Before cochlear implants They are only producers they are not recipients in this language Use gestures to communicate but system isn39t shared meaning they only produce they don39t receive Parents are gesturing in less structured ways Children are creating a much more structured system What happens when homesigners are exposed to sign later in life Newport reading Newport studied ASL proficiency in deaf learners who had started learning ASL at different times Native learners exposed to ASL from birth Tests Production task Showed a number of different videos of events Trees falling on top of a car etc Asked people to describe them in ASL Look for different features of syntax and morphology Word order There are times where you want to highlight the thing the boy pushed eg the watermelon the boy pushed you are emphasizing this vs the boy pushed the watermelon Agreement between subject objects and verbs o I walk but the boy walks 0 make sure there39s agreement between number of things implied in the subject vs the verb 0 In ASL there39s a word for give you can give to one person two people number of different ways for marking that Use of classifiers 0 To have a placeholder that has some of the features structural feature of the language to indicate where people are in events Verb inflections for aspect and number 0 Was something completed or in the process of being done 0 Multiple individuals or single individuals Derivational morphemes those that change categories 0 Cow ike cowlike which changes a verb into an adjective Comprehension test present sentence in sign language then ask people to recreate the event that she described For word order native learners late learners and early learners Skill in word order as a function of age of first exposure to American Sign Language Easy to understand where you put the verb Where do you put the subject The object However when you look at the morphological syntactic features then native learners are producing far fewer errors and late learners are missing a bunch of elements Learners exposed early from life are doing a bit better than late learners but a little worse than native learners For learning little rules about language what needs to be modified modulated based on context the native learners are doing really well etc conclusion Children who are exposed to their first language late in childhood have a hard time picking up on the subtleties of linguistic rules Errors ate earners make frozen forms things learned as phrases without an ability to break them down eg gimme in infants variable use of sign morphology inconsistency within an individual omission of obligatory morphology these seem to persist even after they finish acquiring their language What about second language learners Newport s tests of 2quotd language learners 46 subjects varying in when they were first immersed in English moved to the US 0 played English sentences half grammatical half nongrammatical participants were asked to say whether the sentence is grammatical might omit an article a or the people exposed to a second language early in development 24 made fewer errors than people exposed to a language later in development also included people from ages 1720 what she found was that they made errors essentially all over the place they are still late learners but they didn39t continue to decline there is an important period where you are still prepubescent and once you move into an adult it39s harder to learn small syntactic rules about language learning late is problematic same kinds of problems present for learning second language after chHdhood some different kinds of errors learning 2quot language late shows same problems as exposed to 1 language late age of acquisition matters Why are young children better language learners 0 Children are more open to receiving new knowledge Lack of interference Neural plasticity something about the way the brain is growing laying down connections in more fluid ways Different types of memory constraints 0 Maybe children have more memory constraits than adults do and maybe it helps them focus on not trying to keep too many things in mind 0 May take one or two examples to learn a rule vs adults being able to learn 20 different things 0 Their limitations in memory may help them making stronger hypothesis in these rules 0 Different types of perception What happens if a hearing child is not talked to Isolated children Hearing children who were not spoken to Locked away Abusive institutionalized setting children weren39t being spoken tointeracted with Parents incapacitated could have been severely disabled and couldn39t interact with them Jenie example of their being a critical period She seems to learn a vocabulary quickly and progressing in a typical language development but when it came to a step beyond that to form questions modify nouns and verbs she wasn39t able to acquire those features Some features of languages that is difficult to acquire if you39re not exposed as a child 52214 Don39t go over 10 pages for final paper Hw5 the way that the child uses a particular type of interaction learning environment gesture Write a new introduction amp new conclusion Submit final paper to turnitin One hard copy in class finals week and one copy at noon the day of online Presentation include the age of your child and some kind of example Can be example from the transcript Sef evauation turn it in separately Final quiz OPTIONAL Can replace one of your scores Can children create language on their own What language is Nicaraquan sign language related to none of the above it is an independent language that didn39t come out of any of those languages what kind of people first arrived when the Nicaraguan school for the deaf opened Children who were homesigners They were using a gesture based system at home with their parents to communicate but not using structure signed language 0 Still communicating with their families and friends How did NSL get started It emerged spontaneously from home signing children interacting with one another During the process of them communicating with one another the system they used started to become increasingly structured What kinds of things characterized the homesigners vocabulary Many words signs but idiosyncratic The children who first came developed their own systems at home and they each essentially used a different system What kinds of things characterized the homesiqners syntax Some Not a fully structured language They would use consistent word order but idiosyncratic one person may use one word order it varies by individuals Homesign has Consistent word order within an individual But they might not be the same Ways of designating thematic role who did what to whom Diff individuals have ways of designating who is the doer and who is it done to Chase always takes 2 arguments you can39t chase without chasing something Recursion Questions Ways of designating questions Nega on Head shake Pastfuture Ways about talking about the pastfuture These are all things homesigners are able to do may do them in different ways Doesn39t mean that homesigners are incapable of communicating Not doing it in a very structured way shared with individuals How did Senqhas test the use of NSL Nicaraguan sign language She asked them to retell a story She showed them a video and asked to retell the event from the video Senghas describes the process on NSL creation similar to a rapid Creolization Creolization Process Starts with Pidgin language Lenguaje de Signos Nicaraguense LSN Simplified form of language between people with own native language Happened a lot during the slave trade They exhibit a lot of same properties as home sign seem to have a system of unique words In terms of having words for things and limited structure Homesign is similar to pidgin Creole Idioma de Signose Nicaraguesnse ISN this is modern day NSL has increased structure and is not changing very much Children hearing pidgin language will impose additional structure on it They will hear this language with some words from French or English and they will impose more structure on it They see patterns rules and they like to apply those If the input a child is using uses one structure or no structure a child will take this irregular input and make it more regular Process of learning the language from the children who take this language that is fairly irregular and impose this structure on it Becomes more complex over time as children find ways of systematically communicating who did the actions were they malefemale etc As children entered the school at different times what they were learning changed They are entering school over time first deaf children encountered only other homesigners Their individual system was not yet shared with anyone else Together started to learn each other s signs and invent some new one The school was not trying to teach the students sign language they were trying to speech them Spanish The children in their free time were trying to interact with one another Not a full language yet they start to borrow and create new signs Deaf children entering a few years later encountered a partially shared system They are encountering this group who are already using signs to interact with another System that is shared in between individuals but not yet fully structured Like a baby being born into a community that speaks pidgin They perceive and use more rules than the people who were originally in this school thus the system they share becomes more structures Deaf children entering a few years after that encountered a shared system with some structure Age at entry vs time of entry Tested effect of two different variables How old the children were when they entered 0 Young lt66 Medium 6710 old 101275 May have difficulties in learning the small rules when they get older What year they entered 0 School founded in 1979 before 1983 and after 1983 Will affect what version they are learning when they enter the school Measures of linguistic complexity Story retellings from 25 NSL signers Senghas measured Number of arguments per verb 0 Not number of verbs 0 Not number of roles they communicate o Is the number of roles associated with a single verb 0 Tiger is chasing and puppy is being chased breaking it up and using 2 diff verbs o Eg she threw the ball How many verbs does that sentence have 1 verb How many arguments 2 o The girl was throwing and there was a ball which was being throw Breaks apart event into 2 separate event Someone is doing a thing and being done to Not part of the same verb Number of inflections per verb o Eg including info about number aspect orientation 0 Aspect is the event in process is it completed 0 Inflected verb any change you make to a verb 0 If you have girl to throw ball That would be a verb that is uninflected If you used throw to talk about a bunch of different things this shows it wasn39t ever inflicted o Throws throwing or threw are all inflections of that verb 0 Numbers of inflections showing agreement o Are these inflections correct 0 The girl throws the ball 0 The 2 girls throws the ball Throws is inflected but no longer agreeing 0 Agreement does that verb match the other things in the story you39re telling 0 Pay there was a girl and 2 boys and she paid Or you can say she paid both of them This shows agreement between number of recipients and the verb What mattered Number of arguments per verb Both age of exposure and year entering Number of inflections per verb both 0 Number of inflections showing agreement both verbs with 2 or more arguments young medium or old student who entered the school inflections per verb students who entered later showed more inflections agreement per verb being a young learner is helpful and entering a system that is partially structured allowed young learner to have more structure people who encountered a partially learned structure then improved that interaction is key to language have to perceive language as well as produce it is interactional process that allows regularization and the emergence of structure encountering structure is only helpful as you encounter structure you create more structure children can take something messy and find order in it they can cut through inconsistencies and make that into a structured and regular system but they can39t do it on their own Interacting with other individuals to find ways of systematically communicating events Interactive process at the core of the structured systems 52214 324 PM 52214 324 PM 52214 324 PM Week 10 Notes 6314 6514 615 PM Additional office hours Friday 25 pm Monday 112 Thursday 330530 Language Socialization Ochs amp Schief in Language socialization culture plays a role on language Language plays a role on culture Language Individual gestures Other nonverbal Modes of address Learning about the status and ways of interacting with those around you Structure of conversation with children Important to know where the boundaries are When you re looking at your own culture they were saying that it s only at these places where you step over the boundary There is something broken or done incorrectly o Looking at child errors to see what children know about linguistic structure o When practices rules or boundaries are broken this helps you understand more about what the rules are and what they believe What two claims do Ochs and Schief in make Children are simultaneously becoming a competent member of a society and they are acquiring a language particularly the social pragmatic aspects o Helps convey what expectations there are with diff people How they should act with grandpa in opposed to their little sister o Done through body movements cultural artifacts rituals and practices o Language is almost always involved in some aspect o Children are becoming part of society and acquiring language simultaneously What are the characteristic features of westem babytalk Feature During babytalk Pitch Higher Intonation Exaggerated amp slowed down Lexicon vocabulary diversity of words Simpli ed reduced speci c to children Diminutives itsybitsy teenytiny ducky Increases kitty Reduplications Increase Sentences Simpler amp shorter Temporal spatial reference where in More talk about the present more here and time space you re talking about now Routines repetitions talking through rhymes increase telling the same story over and over again Cooperation amp expansion Increase Most things on this list the adult is doing unidirectional to the child Cooperation and expansion Parents construct sentences and narratives cooperatively with their children by providing a structure and prompting them to fill in pieces Kind of like mad libs Eg M Clifford is a C doggy M and he is really really C big Parents expand their own utterances and the child s utterances building on what was just said Really generating structure after the fact Happens spontaneously Indication of the parents orientation of an expectation towards the child as a competent communicative participant The parent is trying to make the child more of an active participant then the child will naturally According to Ochs amp Schief in paper protoconversations are B When parents attempt to engage very young infants in conversation by responding to all of their noises and actions as if they were utterances Focused on thinking about the child as a fully competent partner Children are interactive partners treating them as if they re participating equally in a conversation Problems with studying American families paradox of familiarity you re so familiar with something that you don t ask the same kinds of questions need to reconsider the descriptions of American caregiving as ethnographic descriptions these are things that are ethnographic and we need to be sensitive to the assumptions that are made within that culture how caregivers and children speak and act toward one another is linked to cultural pattems that extend beyond those contexts Focus on 3 facets of communicative interactions social organization of the verbal environment of young children thinking about how adults or situations accommodate to children s current levels negotiation of meaning between parent and child Analysis what NOT to do remember that the purpose of this paper is NOT to describe the child s language usage You will do that in parts 2 and 4 of the nal paper objective of assignment 5 and part 5 of your final paper is to pose an interesting compelling argument about a particular factor related to the child s development and to language development and socialization as a PROCESS Some papers have no main argument at all Goal is to make a speci c argument about the child s argument Should NOT do this The child s language development is on track The child uses gesture to communicate Child has a large vocabulary etc What to do How does language development differ for children with particular leaming or developmental challenges Specify what the specific thing is that makes this child s leaming development different Language development in children with we can see each of these ways in the speech of 6514 Language Socialization cont How meaning negotiations are interacted between parent and child Kaluli Papua New Guinea North of Australia Kaluli attitudes towards young infants Children are soft and have no understanding of the world Infants are to be pitied and thus looked after Not having this understanding of the world Mothers carry infants most often facing outward so they can see and be seen by others Older children encouraged to greet and speak to infant and mother often responds for infant using a highpitched voice Idea of embodying the infant but not having those impulses come from the infant Language environment of infants Speakers often repeat sounds back to infants but don t think infant is trying to say specific things As infant become mobile their actions are often commented on by older speakers Not directed to infant but relate to what the infant is doing at that moment Language to infants is NOT simplified in the way that stereotypical white middle class mothers would do is different in the following three ways Language doesn t begin until infant acquires speci c words Mother amp breast teaching language to infants once child begins to speak older people believe heshe must be taught how to speak model what the child should say say it like that direct instruction used to teach social uses not teaching them object labels e g to get the infant to be assertive to others effective communication is infant s responsibility not adult s Samoan American and Westem Samoa highly stratified hierarchical society these ideas permeate throughout the entire social world caregiving is hierarchical too a small piece of a larger cultural system oldest person present is highestranking caregiver you have infant 5 year old and 9 year old So 9 year old is in charge they will give instructions to the others to take care of the infant Samoan attitudes toward children young infants are not treated as communicative their noises are interpreted in relation to physical needs are they uncomfortable hungry cold etc when infant becomes mobile others often regard himher as mischievous and willful they will often scold infants tell them not to do things Being an intentional or willful act Language environment of children Language to children not simplified Children prompted to speak in certain ways to others Adults will encourage younger children to communicate to other people Not focus on dyadic focusing on triadic interaction The parent is encouraging the child to tum outward interact with other individuals E g convey new information to higherranking people Younger children encouraged to bring new information comment on things be messengers for higherranking individuals Conclusions from these three stories Overfocus on dyadic motherinfant interaction Similar to overfocus on monolinguals In some cultures interaction with children is typically multiparty In a lot of societies older children are caregivers and linguistic models Ideas about appropriate ways of interacting with children and expectations for children are cultural These are things you need to understand as a cultural system before you can understand the caregiver child interactions Is the way mothers talk to babies special Is the way that adults talk to children unique Caregiver speech is distinct but is it the only kind of language that has a speci c register Even in different cultures where the ways adults talk to infants is different the adults and older children still have specific ways with interacting with infants Is that useful Meaningful Interesting They say yes there s normal speech and caregiver speech but also there s speech to highranking people foreigners speech to people outside of your family Caregiver speech may be distinct but there are other types of speech Should be thought of as one direction along a continuum Relates to expectations about ways of interacting with different kinds of people In US simpli ed speech is used for both babies and other non uent people eg foreigners without strong English People who are early 2LL s or have a linguistic delay or disability You see the same kinds of trait in speech emerge in our society that we treat everyone as someone who should be accommodated In Samoa it s not that they never simplify their speech They just never do it to infants They will simplify to foreigners Accommodate to highranking people only people who have status Foreigners were considered people who were worthy of accommodation where infants should accommodate to you You have some cultures that accommodate to infants some that don t and accommodate to other groups of people Shows the accommodation and changing way of speech to be easier to understand Emerges in different societies that are shaped and formed but global countries General thoughts The process by which the language ability develops is similar across cultures especially early on From birth children Orient towards human faces Pay attention to human voice 0 Children like to listen to voices Notice pattems in sounds and images During their first year children Start to leam what sounds are meaningful in the language around them Play an active role in shaping their environment through action gesture and sound Children start to make choices about who they interact with and what they try to communicate about These come with the ability to acquire language The process by which the language use develops is cultural sensitive Children leam expectations about whom to talk to and how to do it They also leam what things have value in their culture Really strongly in uenced by the cultural framework of a society Process by which the language structure develops is both similar and different across cultures Children in different cultures start using different kinds of words earlier than others All children are generalizers They leam things they over generalize they apply things to situations 0 This capacity for generalization applies to both language and culture 0 Leaming ways about being a participant in their community
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