Sample Anthro Notes
Sample Anthro Notes ANTH260
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Shook on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH260 at Washington State University taught by Luke Premo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
ANTH 260 UNIT 2 STUDY GUIDE PRIMATES GENERAL TRAITS Upright posture 5 digits on hands and feet exible nails not claws opposable thumbbig toe tactile pads on nger tips collarbone for mobile front limbs different dentitionteeth equations reduced emphasis on smell orbital eye with color vision primate history traits few offspring per pregnancy prolonged period of infancy amp dependency long lifespan for body size learned behavior large social groups EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS Arboreal Hypothesis basic primates selected to t an adaptive niche in the trees Visual Predator Hypothesis primates adapted to forest ground to catch small insects amp prey Fruit Flower Eating Hypothesis favored by selection to better harvest owering plants amp fruit SURVEY OF 4 GROUPS Prosimians Locomotion vertical clinging and leaping Mostly eats insects but also birds bats snakes Con ned to Madagascar tropical Africa and Asia Greatest number of ancestral traits of all primates EXAMPLES Lemurs Tarsiers Lorises AyeAyes lndris New World Monkeys Platyrhini Anthropoid higher primate close to humans Small and have prehensile grasping tails and run on top of branches Spend a lot of time in trees so they live in tropical forests of Central amp South America Large multimale multifemale groups EXAMPLES Woolly Monkey Spider Monkey Squirrel Monkey Howler Monkey Owl Monkey Pygmy marmoset Old World Monkeys Carcopithecoidea Anthropoid Cercopithecines partly terrestrial omnivorous live in large groups Colobines arboreal colorful feed on leaves EXAMPLES Baboons Macaques Mandrills Languars Vervet Monkey etc Hominoids Anthropoid quotGreat Apesquot o Chimpanzee Africa equator knucklewalkers groups lead amp defended by males competing for status important mother infant bond Jane Goodall studied them use tools for meals and hun ng o Bonobo Chimpanzee taller longer arms darker faces less aggressive larger female group role sex a lot for anything 0 Gorilla Africa equator forests sexual dimorphism in body size onemale and multifemale groups mostly vegetarian o Orangutan rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra large tree climbers smaller social groups frugivorous eat mostly fruits quotLesser Apesquot o Gibbons and Siamangs tropical SE Asia pair bonded adults and offspring brachiation swing like monkey bars long arms amp ngers short legs PRIMATE BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY Natural selection favors strategies that increase tness Strategy a set of behaviors that produces a particular course of action under certain conditions No perfect strategy doesn t imply conscious reasoning or intent FEMALE AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES Female success related to ability to obtain calories and nourishment for herself and offspring Transportation warmth protection from danger also very important Male success affected more by access to females than to calories resulting in competition MALE COMPETITION Being more attractive beating up the competition favored sexual dimorphism traits that differ between the sexes in a species sperm competition infanticide killing infants PRIMATE BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY EVOLUTION OF COOPERATION SOCIAL INTERACTIONS Sel sh improves own tness at the detriment of others Mutualistic both parties cooperate to get mutual bene t Altruistic actor does something that decreases own tness to bene t someone else Spiteful goes out of the way to knock another down but pay a cost as well both worse off PROBLEM OF ALTRUISM Poses an evolutionary problem acts are costly to self at the bene t of others EXAMPLES alarm calls territorial defense food sharing communal care of young SOLUTIONS Social interactions must be nonrandom similar characteristics towards other altruists Kin Selection Hamilton 1964 0 assumes that altruism is underwritten by genes to pass on a Hamilton 5 Rule rb gt c R relatedness or probability that 2 individuals have same allele high value with parents closer to O with nonkin B bene t to recipient of additional offspring result C cost to the altruist of fewer offspring result Multilevel Selection Wilson 1975 0 When groups with greater frequency of altruists out compete groups with fewer altruists 0 Can only occur when variation between groups is greater than variation within groups Reciprocal Altruism Trivers 1971 o Altruists take turns giving and receiving bene ts without cheaters o This requires opportunities to act in different roles being able to keep track of what s given and received only help those who provided help in the past FOSSILS COMPONENTS OF PALEOANTH ROPOLOGY Paleoanthropology multidisciplinary pursuit seeding to reconstruct and explain the timing and nature of evolutionary change in the morphology and behavior of our hominin relatives Geography Continental drift the movement of large tectonic plates 0100 mm per year on top of denser rocks beneath Paleoclimatology climatic conditions of the past analyzed from cores of the earth usually from deep sea Paleomagnetism movement of the magnetic north pole TAPHONOMY The study of how fossils and the fossil record form Fossilizationmineralization process by which organic material is replaced by minerals creating a stone copy of the organic original These are rare because few conditions allow this formation rapid burial in ne sediment gentle burial mineralrich chemical environment DATING TECHNIQUES Relative Dating Place nds in a sequence relative to one another but provide no actual dates or date range Stratigraphy and the law of superposition older layers overlain by more recent years RadiometricAbsolute Dating provides date estimates in years before present BP for geological depos s Ex stopwatch analogy Radiocarbon dating 0 C12 stable doesn t decay same amount in organism dead or alive as C14 0 C14 decays through time created constantly until death EVOLUTION EARLY PRIMATES Miocene 235 mya hominoid radiation quotplanet of the apesquot world became cooler amp drier during latter half climate change shows shift in primate species more monkey less ape sets the stage for appearance of hominins Asia and Europe Dryopithecus 95 mya teeth chimplike in size and enamel indicating frugivory cranium and skeleton apelike brachiation locomotion swings branch to branch Sivapithecus 148 mya big powerful jaws large molars and thick teeth enamel Orangutan ancestor India and Pakistan Oligocene 3423 mya anthropoid radiation best known early anthropoids come from fossil beds in Fayum Basin Egypt Aegyptopithecus relatively long snout and tiny brain postorbital closure binocular vision apelike dental formula 2123 sexual dimorphism in skull size Eocene 5434 mya Prosimian adaptive radiation appearance of true primates Adapids amp Omomyids grasping hands and feet with nails EXAMPLE Ida 47 mya is the worlds best preserved adapid Paleocene 6554 mya rst possible primates Plesiadapiforms Plesiadapids small primate like animals solitary mostly alone terrestrial live on the ground and arboreal live in the trees quadrupeds walk on all fours well developed sense of smell claws on hands and feet 0 Carpolestes simposoni 56 mya nearly complete skeleton discovered in Wyoming 2002 had opposable big toe with nail but claws on rest of digits ORIGINS OF BIPEDALISM Bipedal gait our form of walking on two legs is unique to hominins humans Foramen magnum small hole that connects spinal chord to skull is located under in the middle rather than the rear of the skull S shaped curvature of spine helps balance and cushion torso Broad bowl shaped pelvis Femur angled inwards which makes our legs closer to the center of gravity to balance better upright Arches in feet provide extra spring short and straight toes no divergent big toe HOMININS A group more closely related to Homo sapiens than chimpanzees Basal Hominins 74 mya the furthest back in time found at base of hominin lineage 0 Saheanthropus tchadensis found in upper Miocene of Chad some debate on whether it s an actual hominin lived in wet amp closed woodlands Ancestral features chimp sized brain Derived features identi ed by spinal hole foramen magnum smaller canines wear on teeth may hold info about social behavior 0 Orrorin tugenensis Found in Tugen hill highlands of Kenya proximal femur shape like modern humans Ancestral features small body size arms and nger bones long and curved adapted for climbing Derived features thick tooth enamel long femur neck supports bipedalism o Ardipithecus ramidus 44 mya Ethiopia paleoenvironment forest fossils very fragile quotBreakthrough of the Yearquot took 17 years due to bad preservations named quotArdiquot Ancestral features sloping face thin tooth enamel bigger canines than in later hominins small brain apelike skull Derived features bipedal foramen magnum toe bones pelvis upper canines not sharpened by lower premolar pelvis short amp broad Austrollopiths 422 mya 4 important species 0 Au Anamensis East Africa inhabited dry woodlands and forests and grasslands Ancestral features ushaped dental arcade parallel tooth rows larger canines sharply receding chin Derived features thick tooth enamel thickness of tibia at knee 0 Au Afarensis East Africa Tanzania and Ethiopia fully bipedal relatively small brain short stature Don Johanson discovered quotLucyquot sexually dimorphic body size pointed canine parallel tooth rows early specimens are from Laetoli Laetoli footprints bipedal knee from Hadar Morphological characteristics longer and more curved phalanges dentition intermediate between chimp and human pattern 0 Au Africanus South Africa discovered in 1924 by R Dart Taung Child Morphological characteristics larger brain than Au Afarensis reduced canine size shorter arms straighter ngers adaptations to strong chewing for tough diet 0 Au Sediba South Africa Paranthropus 251 mya o P aethiopicus quotThe Black Skullquot because of black fossils found in Kenya by Alan Walker in 1985 may be descendent of Au Afarensis o P boisei found at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania by Mary Leakey in 1959 may be descendent of P aethiopicus quotZinjquot huge molars are derived traits not shared by humans 0 P robustus South Africa very big same set of adaptions as P boisei likely due to convergent evolution
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