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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacelyn Davis on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST105 at University of Oregon taught by Michael Furtado in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see History of the Modern World in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Jan 7 2015 Lecture 1 Mongols Muslims amp Ming Big Question Why did the Nomadic threat to sedentary people recede in central Asia Sedentary established community living space Context 0 Silk Road 300 bc to 100 ad 0 Exotic goods traded between China and western countries 0 Regularly raided by nomadic bandits o Expanded out of Arabia 0 Muslims controlled areas around Silk Road and Mediterranean made Samarkand an important city for trade 0 Spread to cover north Africa to the Indian Ocean to Eastern European states 0 Spices o Exported from India and surrounding areas 0 More valuable than gold 0 Trade had to pass through lslamic Middleman to go between India and Europe Innovation and Exchanges Europe and Asia 0 Windmill European invention 0 Paper Chinese invention 0 Spinning wheel essential for production of wool and cloth 0 Magnetic compass invented by Chinese to determine which direction structures should face used by Europeans for navigation Back to Asia 0 Genghis Khan Chingis Khan great ruler 0 He united the nomadic tribes and commanded great loyalty o War lord he did travel with caravans so speed was important benefit to the ef ciency of the Mongols 0 During his reign he controlled the largest land empire in history Asia and the Steppe lands 0 The Steppe 0 Poor soil always frozen extreme climates 0 Horses adapted to the step and were able to survive on the poor food had great endurance and were small compared to most horses 0 Mongols Basically lived on horseback highly mobile cavalry Archers used horn bows from horseback very powerful Often raided trade caravans siege tactics but no siege technology Used terror as a weapon OOOO 0 United by Genghis Khan in early 13th century to conquer and rule most of the Asian land mass and the Chinese sedentary people Kublai Khan 0 Son of Genghis first Yuan emperor of China 0 Maintained and patrolled Silk Road to keep peace inside borders benefit wealth of nation 0 Foreigners at court 0 Kublai was rst to allow foreigners like Marco Polo into the imperial court I Kept direct contact between his empire and the western states Retained Chinese advisors China was base and focus for governance Allowed local cultures and practices to continue with minimal disruption as long as all gave complete submission I Did not try to assimilate to Chinese culture or force Chinese people to change their ways drastically but there was a definite ethnic hierarchy o Yam 0 First pony express rapid reliable communication system that allowed the delivery of messages information and disease from one end of the empire to the other within a fortnight Fresh horses were obtained at stations along the road as messengers travelled as efficiently as possible 0 In 1348 the Yam was partially responsible for the rapid spread of the Black Death plague o Shangdu aka Xanadu was Kublai Khan s castle o Absolutely enormous covered in gold 0 Ming Dynasty took the empire from the Mongols in 1368 Hongwu emperor ruled Summary Q Why did the Nomadic threat to sedentary people recede in central Asia The nomadic Mongol hordes regularly raided trade caravans along the Silk Road until they were united under Genghis Khan in the early 13th century Genghis Khan then lead them in the takeover of the entire Asian landmass and his rule was succeeded by his son Kublai Khan Kublai Khan was the rst Yuan emperor and allowed cultural diversity but with a social hierarchy He patrolled and protected the Silk Road because it served his interests to maintain peace within his borders and allow his nation to profit The Black Death plague gave the Hongwu emperor his chance to become so at the end of the Yuan dynasty Threat receded because the Mongols the threat conquered the Chinese sedentary people and protected them and the Silk Road location of majority of predation and coexisted as peacefully as possible while ruling them
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