1st Week CHEM Notes
1st Week CHEM Notes CHEM102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deanna Aeschliman on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM102 at Washington State University taught by Dr. McCubbin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Chemistry Life Sciences in Botany at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Chem 102 012914 Exam Ch 149 Thiols and Disul des many 0 containing compounds have sulfur analogs Thiols mercaptans sulfur analogs of alcohols systematic name formed by adding thiol to parent hydrocarbon name S doesn t really form H bonds strong odor ending thiol react W mild oxidizing agents to yield disulfides 2 thiols join this reaction the H atom from each is lost bond forms between sulfurs reverse occurs When a disulfide treaded With a reducing agent disulfides can be reduced back thiols important bc occur in amino acid cysteine part of many proteins easy formation of bonds between cysteines helps shape large protein molecules proteins in hair unusually rich in 88 and 8H groups oxidation rxn Alkyl Halides alkyl halidessimplest halogen containing compounds RX ide ending halogen atom is a substituent on a parent alkane Ch 15 Amines Aminescontain one or more organic groups bonded to N organic derivatives of ammonia NH3 classified as primary 1 degree secondary or tertiary according to how many organic groups are individually bound directly to the N atom primary and secondary have H s and are different than tertiary amines RadicalWhen one breaks a bond that has 2 e and Will make a molecule that has 1 e each amine N atom has lone pair of e s lone pair responsible in large part for chemistry of amines 4th group bonds to N through this lone pair product is a quaternary ammonium ion has permanent positive charge and forms ionic bonds Chem 102 013114 Exam No class Feb 14 Ch 15 Amines Amines lone pair responsible for chem of amines 4th group bonds to N through this lone pair product is a quaternary ammonium ion which has permanent positive charge and form ionic bonds primary alky amines RNH2 named by identifying alkyl group attached to each N simple nonheterocyclic secondary and tertiary amines named by adding di or tri to the alkyl group name along w suffix amine NH2 functional group amino group group is a substituent aminois used as prefix in name of compound aromatic amines primarily known by their common names simplest is aniline proteins are polymers of amino acids these have the general structure H2N CHRCOOH the lone electron pair on the N in amines causes amines to act as weak BronstedLowery bases or Lewis bases Ex N3 w 2 lone pairs H20 has a reaction now N4 OH primary and secondary amines can H bond w one another bc of H bonding primary and secondary amines have higher boiling points than alkanes of similar size Ex butane bp 0 C propylamine bp 48 C propanol bp 97 C many volatile amines have strong odors add acid to reverse odor or volitilation complex amines from plants can be poisonous living things and drugs have amine func group Properties protanoate amines ammonium ions of even large compounds are water soluble tertiary amines lower boiling than secondary or primary amines bc H bonding between tertiary amines not possible simple amines water soluble bc of H bonding w water N containing compounds the N atom is in ring w C atoms heterocycles compounds that contain atom other than C in ring Basicity of Amines aqueous solutions of amines are weakly basic nonaromatic amines are slightly stronger bases than ammonia aromatic amines weaker bases than ammonia ammonium ion positive ion formed by addition of H to an amine AcidBase Chem acid reacts w base to give a conjugate base and conjugate acid don t have an acid unless have a base conjugate acid of amine ammonium ion is positively charged Acidity of Ammonium ions amine cations 4 bonds to N named w ending ium alcohol cations 3 bonds to N named ending w oxonium ammonium ions are normally acids Ex Histamine Serotonin Biological Systems water solubility increase w charge charged reactants in general can t pass through the nonpolar cell membraneswalls medication must be soluble in body uids to be transported to site of action pH of body uids is about 74 most common func groups are carboxylate phosphate and ammonium have different ionization states charges weak acids amines are unionized in acidic environment in stomach and readily absorbed there Amine Salts ammonium salt is ionic compound composed of an ammonium cation and an anion generally odorless white crystalline solids much more water soluble than neutral amines EX cocaine methylammonium chloride is written CH3NH2XHCl and named methylamine hydrocholoride if free amine base is needed easily regenerated by treatment w base like bicarbonate quaternary ammonium ions have 4organics groups bonded to N atom w positive charge w no H atom and no lone pair ammonium ions neither acidic nor basic structures in solution are unaffected by changes in pH known as quaternary ammonium salts benzalkonium chlorides have antimicrobial and detergent properties as dilute solution used in surgical scrubs and for sterile storage of instruments Chem 102 020314 Exam Ch 156 Amines in Plants Alkaloids Alkaloidsnaturally occurring Ncontaining compounds isolated from plants usually basic bitter poisonous not destroyed during cooking sunlight stimulates formation of chlorophyll under skin of potato green color provides warning EX coniine extracted from poison hemlock Socrates killed himself w this atropine nightshade or belladonna central nervous system reduces cramping of digestive tract solanine found in potatoes and tomatoes same family as nightshade poppy morphine and codeine laudanum paregoric dilute solution of opium w anise oil glycerin benzoic acid camphor heroin doesn t occur naturally synthesized from morphine removal of CH3O groups converts heroin back to morphine Learning Catalytics H bond donors need to have N and H w charge H bond acceptor and donor needs to have lone pairs and H H bond acceptor needs lone pairs Ch 16 The Carbonvl GrouD Carbonyl compounds CO classified to what is bonded to carbonyl C 0 more electronegative than C so strongly polarized rise in reactivity bond angles between 3 substituents on carbonyl C atom 120 degrees aldehydes and ketones similar properties bc carbonyl groups are bonded to C and H atoms that don t attract e strongly Ex formaldehyde acetalkdehyde methylbutanol acetone cyclohexanone methl ethyl ketone polarity of carbonyl group makes aldehydes and ketones moderately polar boil at higher temp than alkanes w similar molecular weights individual molecules don t H bond to each other aldehydes and ketones w lower boiling points aldehydes and ketones soluble in common organic solvents w fewer than 5 or 6 C atoms are soluble in water bc they are able to accept H bonds Ex cinnamaldehyde camphor civetone Ex formaldehyde toxic but useful colorless gas w pungent odor at room temp skin contact can cause dermatitis formed during incomplete combustion of HC fuels breakdown product of methyl alcohol one reasons drinking methanol is so toxic sold as 37 aqueous solution under name formalin kills viruses fungi bacteria by reaction w amino groups in proteins sterilizer found in polymers such as adhesives Urea Ex acetaldehyde sweet smelling narcotic ammable liquid formed by oxidation of ethyl alcohol small amounts produced in normal breakdown of carbs preparation of polymeric resins and silvering of mirrors Ex acetone super solvent organic solvents dissolves most organic compounds miscible with water volatile serious fire and explosion hazard breakdown of fats and carbs is out of balance is produced in liver
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