HIS105 one week notes
HIS105 one week notes HISTORY 105
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luis Castro on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HISTORY 105 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Spohnholz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Roots of Contemporary Issues in History at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
101414 Announcements 1 Worldcat is a database of primary sources that wsu has access to 2 Oxford reference 3 Bibliographies and footnotes of secondary sources to see their primary sources Where did the idea that race is a biological construction come from 0 people came to understand themselves as defined by their common eXperiences leading to creation of white and black as a result of social eXperiences Carolus Linnaeus 0 How would you describe Linnaeus system for understanding the world 0 Based on physical appearances of animals and vegetables 0 First system of divisions between animals and man 0 animals vegetables and minerals with humans at the ultimate top 0 opinions about people and clothing about people romanticizing geographical areas 0 africa harsh faces dark skin 0 organizing based on cultural customs 0 people are controlled by customs 0 native americans europeans are governed by laws 0 some are inherently not governed by anything 0 How does his categorization of humans compare to the slave laws 0 all men are the governors making all men above everything else 0 emergence of ideas about race are caused by slavery they did not cause slavery seen as inherently different categories even though they have been intermiXing categories in past for Linnaeus there is no miXing they are all inherently seperate conquest of Europeans was seen as a science of man science backed up racism 0 Homo ferus wild savage cruel man 0 Europaeus albus ingenious white sanguine governed by law 0 Americanus rubescus happy with his lot liberty loving tanned and irascible governed by custom Asiaticus luridus yellow melancholy governed by opinion 0 Afer niger crafty lazy careless black governed by the arbitrary will of the master Racial Essentialism 0 specific phenomena of people in terms of some inherent characteristic of a people by nature George Cuvier 17691832 amp the emergence of racial typology argued that there were 3 subspecies of man 0 caucasian mongolian ethiopian stressed permanent difference among types though he recognized interbreeding believed that over time those races do not change 0 Emerged debate amongst scientists monogenism vs polygenism Monogenism idea that humans all come from the same original human beings somehow connected biologically to one another 0 Polygenism 0 different races emerge in different areas completely separate from one another 0 used by scientists to eXplain racial differences 0 Cuvier was a monogenist argued adam and eve were caucasian and offshoots became different 0 argued a large disaster caused many to ee towards different areas causing them to change 0 polygenism became a dominant theory in the 1800s to eXplain human variations 0 enforces imperialism 0 imperialism becomes a rational and objective view on how the world works 0 this is how we got ideas of how race is eXplained through science 0 phrenology 0 human conduct could best be understood in neurological rather than philosophical or religious terms 0 idea that you could determine a person s ability r personality by the shape of their skull scientists start studying several skulls 0 start creating links between africans and animals 0 stereotypes presented as if they are scientific reality Social Darwinism idea that con ict between groups is inherent to nature and history and the groups that survive those con icts can reproduce allowing superior groups to dominate the inferior groups 0 allowed some to say that the slave owners imperialists were somehow superior 0 came to be used to justify imperial conquests 0 mid 1800s were pinnacle of conquests by Europeans 0 cheap labor is needed in late 19th century causing eXploitation 0 scientific racism provided justification for the apparent disconnect between rhetoric of freedom and reality of eXploitation 0 civilizing primitive cultures became the objective What arguments did Pearson and Johnson make to support social darwinism 0 even interacting becomes dangerous for races 0 inter crossing would raise the bad stock 0 Africans have been thousands of years without white interactions and hadn t produced anything 0 Servitude and domination are natural results of differences 0 this became justification for eugenics movement causing people to start justifying their cause through this 0 cruelty murder and oppression 0 Johnson 0 if the white man is taken out of africa would cause africa to go back to being savage categorized people based on countries and areas they are from 0 new compared to slave laws and Linnaeus 0 not about skin color but about where you re from 0 areas are categorized by the skin colors of major areas 0 30 years after africa is carved up europeans are assigning them characteristics as if they re all the same 0 racialization of nations 0 ideas that everyone in a nation shares characteristics 0 minorities pose a threat to civilization of a nation What was the relationship between their racism and the systems of global industrialization and global imperialism that we studied in issues 1 and 2 0 countries that are colonies that are being governed by powers are at the bottom 0 race nationalism imperialism are all connected 0 ability of nations to conquer other nations is connected to race New Imperialism 0 based on scientific knowledge 0 europeans sell their products to those in colonies based on the idea that the colonists would be more like the europeans 101614 Racism A History 0 19th century began with a great optimum with britain about to become the first country to end slavery presuming that slaves would transform themselves into a hard working and christian peasantry 0 although men and brothers black people were lesser men and lesser brothers 0 they think that maybe in some future they will be equal 0 abolitionists fought and won for the freedom of black people with the next step being sent into africa to bring them into christianity 0 religions were destroyed soon people began believing that blacks could not be civilized and instead should be eradicated Tasmania 1803 Europeans saw tasmanians as people who were left behind by history and that they were uniquely primitive and savage and therefore justified to be treated almost like animals 0 Europeans settlers had a desire to kill aboriginals even though it was illegal to 0 rape and murder was common 0 both sides saw each other as having no humanity 0 leading to extreme hatred Europeans could replace their dead but the aboriginals starting off with only 5000 strong could not 0 british did not want the stain of a mass genocide governor arthur set out to save the aboriginals simply to protect his career 0 did so with a poster depicting equality for both sides 0 never worked as both sides continued killing arthur ordered a complete sweep through to capture and kill all aboriginals 0 set a bounty as well 0 george augustus robinson was a missionary leader of aboriginal converts hired to seek out the other aboriginals in the congo 0 set out as seeking a compromise convinced them that they should go to an island where they would be looked after and fed and ultimately return home 0 inders island 300 aboriginals were transported 0 260 dead by mid 1840s 0 point civilization was a factory to transform savages into christians 0 need to settle down in a village go to school become agriculturalists 0 end of 1830s respectable words of abolitionists was prevalent but by 1840s the words of those who said blacks were lazy were becoming prevalent 0 thomas carlile 0 those who know should rule those who don t know 0 men over women whites over blacks educated over noneducated governor edward heir ordered soldiers to kill and burn homes of east jamaican revolters in 1869 0 tactic was to put him on trial for mass murder but everyone backed him 0 justified in placing severe brutality because that was the only thing black people understood because they were brutes 0 Charles Dickens 0 study of corpses led way to scientific racism 0 robert knox wrote a book on the essentiality of race in life 0 skulls the bigger the skull the bigger the brain the shape of the skull the shape of the brain 0 skulls were seen as a division in species 0 blacks and natives weren t seen as lower humans but instead as perhaps not human at all 0 The Origin of Species 0 Darwin 0 if evolution changed races and species of animals why didn t it do the same to humans 0 natural selection then promptly eXplained the superior european race 0 social darwinists arise thomas thley 0 herbert spencer 0 evolution suggested that the losers were those who could not compete native people everywhere 0 crimes of imperialists were taken as proof that the social darwinists were right 0 social darwinists pictured natives as soon to be extinct animals only visible in taXidermy in museums 0 British India 0 supposedly ruled by men who were wise 0 a famine was seen as an instrument of social darwinism and to intervene was to interfere with a rule of nature 0 british dismantled ancient systems that assured that food shortages wouldn t happen 0 changed when british ushered them into a global market 0 meaning they had to grow more for the world and less for themselves 0 to lord lipton all this was a simple effect of social darwinism 0 they believed the poorest of the poor died people condemned to death by nature 0 8 million died in famines of 1870s 0 famines returned in 1880s and 1890s 0 soon social darwinism turned people on their own working class 0 such as cockney race in britain terrified that the lower class was reproducing faster than the middle or higher 0 the least fit was surviving eugenics became widely respected with huge array supporters 0 1904 herero and nama tribes were sent to concentration camps by germans 0 some were raped beaten or murdered by guards 0 shark island 0 most infamous of camps 0 established for eXpress purpose of killing people 0 everyone knew that being placed upon that island would be killed 0 combo between killing and bureaucracy skulls and severed heads were sold to museums to be used to prove inferiority of africans fisher a eugenicist came namibia to prove the white gene was superior to african gene 0 used by US which was eXperiencing a massive in uX of migration 0 some were scared of interracial mixing 0 charles davenport sought to identify those races that they considered genetically unfit 0 once you were identified it ruled where you went to school where you were buried who you could marry intended to protect the genetic health of the white race 0 tracked ancestry and tracked down bloodlines to wipe out other bloodlines to leave behind solely the aryan race 0 these people thought they were saving humanity believed themselves to be libertarians 0 Germany eugenics found its best audience 0 anything from america must be good america was the tone of the future 0 american foundations bankrolled german eugenics eugen fischer was empowered to sterilize nazis chose murder over sterilization 102114 ISSUE PAPER DUE SUNDAY AT 12 AM FRIDAY 5PM 20 EC POINT PAPER DUE What forms of racism were developing in the 19th century Emancipation 1865 US postcivil war 0 economic 0 free labor from slaves 0 from sharecropping 0 free blacks end up in debt to whites 0 free labor boosts US economy while oppressing 0 Jim Crow laws 0 different public schooling resulting in different academic results 0 cultural whites and blacks were trained to associate differently with each other 0 separated people 0 black face 0 menstrual shows that would reinforce ideas about race Belgian Congo 0 economic 0 hold women hostage send men to collect rubber 0 if the men didn t bring back enough rubber they would cut off their hands 0 no one left to grow food 0 cheap rubber obtained from military forcing them to 0 king leopold si 0 politically 0 US and European governments approved 0 cultural 0 affected ways people of the Congo were seen 0 human zoos tribes begin to see each other as equal based on shared eXperiences South Africa 0 apartheid was an attempt to split up cultures 0 steve beiko becomes a martyr for fighting apartheid killed in a protes aimed at celebrating blacks and whites in all aspects of life 0 economic 0 caused colored people to be poor 0 worked for low wages on industrial and agricultural production 0 whites benefited from the workers 0 life as a black person in south africa was demeaning post 1945 0 WWI amp globalization 0 the League of Nations in 1919 amp National SelfDetermination WWII deepest racism embodied in the Nuremberg Laws 0 black soldiers went off to fight nazis but upon return are still known as second class citizens 0 some were harassed attacked or lynched by whites claiming they didn t deserve the uniform 0 United Nations 0 has a military 0 security council 0 top 5 countries 0 agreement amongst all signers that every human being demands a level of human rights Resistance after 1945 0 Emmett Till 0 a normal citizen accused of looking at a white woman other whites beat him and killed him leaving him completely disfigured 0 shown on television 0 around the world people could see the brutality of racism in america 0 family wanted an open casket and wanted it to be shown on tv 0 Rosa Parks 0 only four months after Emmett Till 0 specifically picked out 0 happened with a young pregnant woman before 0 Nelson Mandela started out as a marXist revolution 0 believed violence was necessary 0 launched military attacks against whites 0 500 killed in one protest wanted whites to learn the language of afrikaans 0 Malcolm X 0 starts out violent ends up peaceful 0 The UK 0 decolonization begins in 1960s 0 people from former colonies are moving to UK 0 African Indian Pakistani 0 increased diversity along with increasing tensions didn t have slave population in UK 0 had racism because it was a former imperial ruler Notting Hill 0 police brutality Two Models of Decolonization 0 Mohandas Gandhi and nonviolent resistance 0 they only rule us because we let them 0 in uenced MLK 0 later convinces Nelson Mandela to adopt peaceful resistance 0 Franz Fanon and violent resistance 0 they only rule us through violence and therefore the only language they understand 0 in uenced Malcolm X 0 by any means necessary 0 PanAfricanism awareness that emerges in middle of 20th century that people of dark skin have been systematically oppressed all over the world 0 idea that they share a heritage and eXperience of racism and oppression bonds people across different continents 0 Haile Sellasie 0 becomes a hero 0 people in jamaica began to see him as a reincarnation of Jesus Christ 0 emperor of Ethiopia leader of the only independent country during the emergence of resistance to global racism 0 Rastafarianism 0 Bob Marley was most famous follower 0 becomes for spokesperson for 0 turned buffalo soldiers into heroic men that those of african descent can be proud of their heritage buffalo soldiers were slaves regimented to fight native americans 0 alternative christianities 0 music becomes a wave for 0 Billie Holiday 0 Strange Fruit 0 song about lynching and ugly violence that underpins Jim Crows emergence of proracism singers 0 especially in country music 0 Grandmaster Flash 0 living in a depressed neighborhood 0 Public Enemy 0 music becomes an avenue to eXplain things to white people 0 Hugh Masekela 0 Bring Him Back Home 0 A Tribe Called Quest 0 Stir it Up 0 How have ideas about race changed from the 16th to the 21st centuries 0 make a list of way that ideas have changed 0 what factors contributed to changes 0 build a thesis that eXplains change over time 0 identify specific examples The idea of different races was established upon the shared eXperiences of people Europeans and white slave owners came to find themselves in the same
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