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Islamic Near East, Week Three

by: Ari Notetaker

Islamic Near East, Week Three HIST131010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > History > HIST131010 > Islamic Near East Week Three
Ari Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover a week's worth of lectures.
Rudolph Matthew
Class Notes
Islamic Near East, middle east, islamic history
25 ?





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ari Notetaker on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST131010 at University of Delaware taught by Rudolph Matthew in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see ISLAMIC NEAR EAST:1500-PRESENT in History at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 02/26/16
02/22-02/26/2016 Islamic Near East: 1500- Present Week 3 - Babur: founder of Mughal Empire (India) Significant for his autobiography • - Humayub: son of Babur - Akbar the Great: 1556-1605, expands realm to Bengal • Known for tolerance of Hindus and Christians • Abolished poll tax for Christians (could do so because of wealth of India) • The Divine Creed, an alternative religion he developed. Declared himself the Sun King • Capital located 100mi south of Deli (Agra) & moved to Fatehpur Sikri (50 miles W of Agra) - Jahangir: idea of ruler as the Sun continues - Shah Jahan (1628-58) • Known for refinement of the courts, for his great love of his wife, and building the Taj Mahal in his wife’s honor. - Aurangzeb (1658-1707) • Known for being a campaigner, for expanding the empire, for being tolerant of the Hindus. • But he was considered a bigot toward other religions, he reintroduced the poll tax on nonMuslims, he destroyed temples of other religions. - This caused outcry amongst the people, but he “silenced” the masses “on his horse” - Bahadur Shah Zafar: 17th and last Mughal emperor (removed from power by the British) - Selim III (1789-1807) • Treaty of Karlowitz- Ottomans lose Hungary 1 02/22-02/26/2016 • Ottoman Empire undergoes military reform - Janissaries (warriors) from the early 1600s become unruly and rebellious - Established Nizam cedíd- new order addressing army formations, new recruiting, drill methods, and the ousting of the Janissaries. • Armenians and Greeks- dragomans- translators for the Ottomans - Battle of the Pyramids (1798) • Napoleon wanted to capture India so he established a beach head in Egypt. • He invaded Egypt (Battle of the Pyramids) and this was the first confrontation between the advanced West and the stagnant East (mostly peasants). • Mamluks rule Egypt under Ottomans somewhat autonomously. • Their defeat leads to the occupation of Egypt. • Napoleon presents invasion as “liberation from evil Turks” • Brought an army of scholars to map the country and incorporate it into a French view (demographics, financials) • Egyptians eventually revolt, but are put down immediately and harshly (Napolian lashed out and destroyed mosques) • After effects of the French occupation: - garbage collection, policing, army and weaponry, organizational talent, order and discipline - Muhammad Ali W. Fred Lewis (1804-76) • Albanian warlord that took over Egypt after Napoleon left • Rules for 40+ years • Modernizes Egypt and takes advantage of agriculture • First to import mercenaries and armor, send students to Europe that are intended to return and build Egypt, set up language and translation schools. - Rifaat al-Tahtawi: part of first group of scholars to go to France. • He fought internally against elements of the new world which are supposed to be rejected, but he found too attractive. 2 02/22-02/26/2016 • Said the Egyptians should adopt love of the father land (patrie) like France. • Develops idea of accountability (mutuality between the people and the government). • Dams the Nile, invades Sudan in search of slaves and gold. - Backfires because the Sunnys didn’t like the Egyptians. • Sends troops across the Red Sea to bring down the Wahhabis. • Built Cairo Citadel - “Banquet” of 1811: Kills all of the Janissary leadership in a trap • His son, Ibrahim Pasha, moves army up to Anatolia, but is stopped by Western powers who threaten to flood Egypt with troops if he doesn’t stop expanding. - Greece tax revolts (1820s) • Greece ruled by Ottomans, but majority never convert, mostly peasants. • Tax revolts cause Ottomans to kill thousands of Greeks which turns into all out war (Example: Chios Island, 20000 Christians slaughtered). 1827 Battle of Navarino (British, French, and Russians against Ottomans) *last • major battle with sailing ships. • Greece becomes the first completely independent state from Ottoman Empire. - Sultan Abulmacid (1839-61) • Tanzimat Reforms (1839-76) - Legal, administrational, and military reform introduced by European powers. Westernized education system, university was reorganized, post/telegraph/ • newspapers introduced, legal reform • Meant to: create a centralized state, create industry (paper, military armaments, railroads), create fiscal revenue, focus on agricultural land, grant equal rights to religious minorities. • Jews, Armenians, and Christians were always more involved with trade, so when trade opened with the West, Christians advanced and took advantage, followed by the Jews. Armenians were usually interpreters due to their many languages. 3 02/22-02/26/2016 - This prosperity of nonMuslims led to resentment - Crimean War (1854-56) • Started over a quarrel in Palestine over the holy sites and how they were to be protected/used. - Russians invaded, then the British and French involved themselves. The Ottomans were rescued by Western powers once again. - Treaty of Paris (1856)- salvaged Ottoman Empire, restricted Russian Naval operations in the Black Sea, gave Russians right to protect Russian religious sites. - Nahda Movement (Arabic Renaissance) • Create words for new world. • Dictionaries, encyclopedias, journals. - Khedive Ismail (1863-79) • Wanted to turn Cairo into “Europe” • Ali Mubarak helped him • 1860s Suez Cannal (thousands of Egyptians died). • Opera house built to celebrate opening of the canal. 4


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