POLS 1020 week 8 II
POLS 1020 week 8 II Political science 1020
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunji Kim on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Political science 1020 at Clemson University taught by Aron G. Tannenbaum in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
POLS 1020 week 8 part II European History: That’s where the Action is European Imperialism: “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire” Warfare makes countries more aggressive, rather than peaceful Europe Destroyed itself in Two World Wars, 1914 – 1945 United States in Western Europe, and Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. Realism and the European Balance of Power 1914 – 1945 Realism, a conservative perspective on international politics, assuming A pessimistic view of human nature Collective / group egotism Inevitability of social conflict And therefore concludes, Inevitability of conflict among states Centrality A harmony of interests is impossible among states Realism failed Europe: Let’s try IR Liberalism, Liberalism An optimistic view of human nature Nurture vs. nature The inevitability of social progress bases on human reason Concludes, Conflict among states is not inevitable Warfare can be controlled, reduced and perhaps eliminated A harmony of interests is possible among states The European Union: Reflects IR Liberalism An Experiment in Applied IR Liberalism The European Union A post- Westphalia Liberal Institution Creation of “an ever closer union” Based on “sharing sovereignty” Borderless continent: free movement of o People/capital/labor/finance/education Search for consensus among political elites, assumption of harmony of interests “Security community:” No use of violence or threat of violence among states, diplomats, leaders But NATO provides a touch of Realism. United States provides a security umbrella for European Union for them not to be violent. Pre-History of the EU Pre- 1945 empires by military conquest o Roman/Holy Roman/Napoleon/Hitler 1952 European Coal and Steel Community 1957 European Economic Community created by the Treaty of Rome 1979 Direct popular elections to European Parliament 1993 EU, created by the Maastricht Treaty 1995 Schengen Agreement, open borders 1996 European Central Bank 2002 New euro currency replaced most European states’ currencies 2009 Creation of the post of President of the European Council (“President of Europe?”) 2012 European Union won the Nobel Peace Prize Three EU locations Strasbourg, on France- German border o European Parliament building Brussels, Belgium o EU administration / Bureaucracy Frankfurt, Germany o European Central Bank From Customs Union to Shared Sovereignty Custom union: lower tariffs among member states and have common external tariff International trade is main staring focus US Marshall Plan forced Europeans to start sharing EU widening and deepening o Widening = adding more countries o Deepening = power shift to Brussels European – level political institutions – o Parliament / elections / courts/ bureaucracy Review Kagan’s 1. Kagan 1: Increased Prosperity through increased international trade Eurozone 19/28 Advantages: o Very popular with consumer o Very popular with large corporations o Enhances “economic and monetary union” Disadvantages: o European central Bank gives Germany economic dominance in the EU Sets common monetary policy But does not set fiscal policy still the preserve of separate national governments And ECB dominated by German bankers, who favor strict monetary policy (austerity) Emphasis on preventing inflation, not on creating jobs So weak response to 2008 financial crisis Result in EU economic inequalities Result in EU Economic growth rate goes negative which Unites States goes positive 2. Kagan 2: Spreading Democracy a. European Parliament Building, Strasbourg (seats 2014 election) b. Executive Branch of the EU (not as clear cut as Parliament) c. EU is a Creation of Political Elites, it has a “democratic deficit” [The thing about smart people is that they seem like crazy people to dumb people] d. An EU “Democratic Deficit. Still alive and well but under attack 3. Kagan 3: A European “ Security Community” a. A successful Liberal project b. Producing unprecedented peace on the European continent c. And producing unprecedented prosperity on the European continent d. But its security is guaranteed b American military power, an intrusion of Realism e. And the EU is facing unprecedented THREE Backlash against the EU Backlash 1: Against the free movement of peoples among EU States o Benefits for migrants o United Stated is in favor of Britain staying in o Come into the warfare to get wealth Backlash 2: Against economic austerity (hard money, hard to start a business, etc.) policies Backlash 3: Against increasing Muslim immigration into EU states. (Most dangerous) o Closing off immigration network Political consequences of backlash o Rise of nationalist sentiment in many EU states o Rise of extremist political parties in many EU states o Further EU deepening is on hold o Growing sentiment for given states to leave the EU 1. Grexit, a possible Greece exit from Eurozone/ EU 2. UKIP the UK independence Party / referendum June 2016 o Backlash against Arab migrants is eroding Schengen; EU states using military force to seal borders again The EU’s Uncertain Future o No common foreign policy o EU punches beneath its weight in international affairs o EU reluctant to confront Russian aggression in Ukraine o IR Liberalism faces its greatest test in our day