Biological Variation Anth 125
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by India Blasser on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 125 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Applegate in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Intro Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Anthropology 125 Biological Variation Biological Variation 0 One of the three major anthropology research areas 0 Definition Study of how and Why modern humans differ biologically 0 Key Questions 1 How do humans vary in one population biologically I Polymorphic differences Within a group Phenotypic Variation visible traits Genotypic Variation in genome L 4 Monogenic simple traits Polygenetic complex traits 2 How do humans vary amongst populations I Polytypic Variation differences among groups Phenotypic Variation visible traits Genotypic Variation in genome Monogenic simple traits Polygenetic complex traits 3 Why are individuals of one popu altiondifferent 4 Why are there differences beth populations 4 Changes can be caused by 1 Natural Selection 2 Gene Flow 3 Genetic Drift 4 Associative Mating mating practices a Positive Mating among those Who are alike b NegativeMating among those Who are different 0 Methods 1 Anthropometry a Measurement of human body soft tissues ex skin face shape 2 Optometry a Measurement of human body hard tissues ex bones 0 Metric Traits O Expressed numerically uses the metric system I NonMetric Traits 0 Not expressed in numbers ex shape of nasal cavity 0 Topics of interest 0 Adaptation to stresses such as I HeatCold I High Altitudes I Disease I Diet 0 Anthropology 125 Biological Variation I UV radiation Genetic Variation I Allele frequencies microevolution population genetics Forensic Anthropology I Study of human remains ex crime scenes Growth and Development Diet and Nutrition I What you eat and what your food contains Demography I Study of human population size distribution and density 0 Units of Analysis 1 Race a Traditional outdates form of unit analysis b Races approximate of the average individual in static categories based on sets of traits c Carlous Linnaeus i First topologist used four races d Johan Blumenbach 1776 i Father of topology e Racial Traits i Genotypic 1 None No race gene ii Phenotypic 1 Skin pigmentation 2 Head shape 3 Eye orbit shape 4 Nasal cavity shape 5 Hair type 6 Eye pigmentation f 3 modern races i Mongoloid Negroid Caucasoid g Pros i Understood by public ii Allows work to be compared with previous research h Cons i Focuses on averages ii Categories are static unchanging iii Traits are unrelated iv Different traits yield different results v No singular genetic difference vi All cons are empirical 2 Population a Recent approach to human classification Anthropology 125 Biological Variation Population A set of individuals of a species that mate exclusively endogamy i Basic unit of evolutionary change Variation i Polymorphic Variation 1 Results from ageseXgenetics 2 Leads to variation within a population ii Polytypic Variation 1 Results from the environment and ancestry 2 Variation between 3 populations Concerned with individual traits no sets i Look at Skin color sickle cell allele ABO blood type Pros i Focuses on variation ii Dynamic and change iii Traits examined individually iv Allow for evolution Cons i Gene ow causes blurred lines between populations 1 Endogamy violated ii Cons are definable 1 How do you define a population in a nonendogamous world