EXAM2REVIEWPSYCH105.pdf Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaron Allen on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy at Washington State University taught by Anna Strahm in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Into to Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
EXAM 2 REVIEW PSYCH 1 5 Chapter 5 Learning Key Terms behavior modi cation the application of learning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors observational learning learning that occurs through observing the actions of others biological preparedness In learning theory the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses operant conditioning The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response conditioned response CR The learned re exive response to a conditioned stimulus operant behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences Conditioning The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses xedinterval Fl schedule A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the rst response that occurs after a preset time interval has elapsed placebo response An individual39s psychological and physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug positive reinforcement response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations primary reinforce A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species such as food water learned helplessness A phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior mirror neurons A type of neuron that activates both when an action is performed and when the same action is perceived behaviorism scienti c study of observable behaviors punishment The presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior39s being repeated conditioned reinforcer A stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforce reinforcement The occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of a particular response is followed by a reinforcer xedratio FR schedule A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after a xed number of responses has occurred shaping The operant conditioning procedure of selectively reinforcing successively closer approximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed spontaneous recovery The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus negative reinforcement A situation in which a response results in the removal of avoidance of or escape from a punishing stimulus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations conditioned stimulus CS A formerly neutral stimulus that now creates a response classical conditioning The basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a responseproducing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response learning A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience unconditioned response UCR The unlearned re exive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus unconditioned stimulus UCS The natural stimulus that re exively elicits a response without the need for prior learning variableinterval VI schedule A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the rst response that occurs after an average time interval which varies unpredictably from trial to trial variableratio VR schedule A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of responses which varies unpredictably from trial to trial Extinction the process of unlearning a conditioned association CS amp CR Key People Albert Bandura American psychologist who experimentally investigated observational learning emphasizing the role of cognitive factors Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist who rst described the basic learning process of associating stimuli that is now called classical conditioning Martin Seligman American psychologist who is best known for his theory of learned helplessness and for founding the modern positive psychology movement B F Skinner American psychologist who developed the operant conditioning model of learning emphasized studying the relationship between environmental factors and observable actions not mental processes in trying to achieve a scienti c explanation of behavior Edward L Thorndike American psychologist who was the rst to experimentally study animal behavior and document how active behaviors are in uenced by their consequences postulated the law of effect 0 John B Watson American psychologist who in the early 19005 founded behaviorism an approach that emphasizes the scienti c study of outwardly observable behavior rather than subjective mental states Operant Conditioning 0 Famous people Skinner Concerns voluntary behaviors ie pressing a button turning a key raising a hand Classical Conditioning 0 Key people Pavlov Watson Concerns involuntary behaviors ie blinking salivating becoming anxious Pavlov s dogs A tube was attached to a dog s salivary glands to collect the secretions Pavlov kept the dog in a small room and recorded the ow of saliva He noticed that placing meat in the dog s mouth would stimulate an increased saliva ow Next he chose a neutral stimulus a bell that had no effect on the dog s saliva ow Every time before he gave the dog food after that he rang the bell Eventually the dog began to salivate every time it heard the bell The bell is the CS and the saliva produced to the bell alone is the CR Reinforcement When a consequence is favorable it is a reinforcer because it reinforces raises the probability that the behavior will occur again 0 When a consequence is unfavorable it is a punisher because it decreases the probability that the behavior will occur again 0 Positive Reinforcement pleasant outcome after a behavior was performed 0 Ex A kid makes his bed behavior and his parents praise him consequence 0 Ex Your parents promise to add 10 to your monthly allowance if you study hard and get at least a 35 GPA in the fall You achieve this and receive the extra 10 per month Your studying behavior increases in the spring in hopes of receiving that bonus again 0 Negative Reinforcement unpleasant outcome after a behavior was performed 0 Ex Parents nag a kid to make his bed so the kid makes his bed behavior in order for the nagging to stop consequence 0 Ex You ll in for Bob on Tuesday and as a result you avoid having to work on Saturday Now you are more liker to ll in for Bob in the future 0 Ex You take 4 Tylenol to get rid of the throbbing headache you have from drinking too much the night before This works so well that this becomes your regular hangover cure in the future Punishment 0 Goal to decrease the behavior that precedes it 0 Positive Punishment unfavorable outcome following an undesirable behavior 0 EX You sleep through the nal in Psych 105 and receive an F in the class Because that F was added to your transcript you are less liker to oversleep on the day of a nal in the future 0 You get caught going 70 mph down Stadium Way a speeding ticket is added to your record Your speeding behavior decreases in the future 0 Negative Punishment taking something good or desirable away in order to reduce the occurrence of a particular behavior 0 EX After getting in a ght with his sister over who gets to play with a new toy the mother simply takes the toy away 0 Your allexpense paid vacation to Cabo is cancelled when your boss catches you sleeping on the job As a result you are less liker to sleep on the job in the future PUNISHMENT REINFORCEMENT POSITIVE NEGATIVE KEY WORDS Punishment less likely decrease Reinforcement more likely increase Positive added Negative taken away Schedules of reinforcement o Fixedratio reinforcement is given after set number of responses Ex A child gets one fold star for every 50 math problems completed 0 Fixedinterval reinforcement is given for the rst response that occurs after a set period of time has elapsed Ex If you put food in your pets dish twice a day your pet won t get rewarded for walking over to the dish during the rest of the day But the rst response after the dish is lled will bring reinforcement o Variableratio Reinforcement is given after a varying number of responses Ex A bad golfer may have to endure a dozen bad shots before he nally hits a good drive 0 Variableinterval reinforcer is given for the rst response after a varying period of time has elapsed EX When pop quizzes are given at unpredictable intervals students are not rewarded for every night of studying but the payoff does come eventually to those who study Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment observational learning Two groups of children One group watched an adult model aggressively hit the doll one group did not watch Both groups experienced frustration and were placed in a room with the doll The ones who watched the model displayed highly aggressive behavior imitating the model s actions The ones who didn t watch the model displayed no or less aggression Seligman s Experiment learned helplessness A dog was placed in a shuttle box a cage that had a low barrier in the middle of the box separating it into two halves The oor on each half of the box had an electrical grid that could shock the dog and researchers could either shock compartment A or compartment B When the researchers switched the shock to compartment A the dog jumped to compartment B to safety They began to shine a light for a few seconds before turning on the shock In the early trials the dog learned to jump across the barrier as soon as it felt the shock but eventually it learned to watch the light and as soon as the light came on it would jump over the barrier Then he strapped the dog into a harness on one side and gave them inescapable shocks at certain intervals The dogs learned that they couldn t get away from the shock and after a few trials it would stop moving lie down and whine The harness was taken off and trial after trial instead ofjumping over the barrier the dog would just passively accept the shock Skinner s Box Skinner showed how negative reinforcement worked by placing a rat in his Skinner box and then subjecting it to an unpleasant electric current which caused it some discomfort As the rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever Immediately it did so the electric current would be switched off The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box The consequence of escaping the electric current ensured that they would repeat the action again and again In fact Skinner even taught the rats to avoid the Speaker Pellet dispenser Dispenser 3977 2 A 39 lube 39 To shook generator Electric grid Food ILIl39p Biological Aspects o Broca s area production of speech electric current by turning on a light just before the electric current came on The rats soon learned to press the lever when the light came on because they knew that this would stop the electric current being switched on o Broca s aphasia has trouble forming words 0 Wernicke s area comprehension of speech 0 Wernicke s apahsia can t understand speech or speak with correct words Chapter 6 Memory Key Words Alzheimer39s disease A progressive disease that destroys the brain39s neurons gradually impairing memory thinking language and other cognitive functions resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself the most common cause of dementia episodic memory Category of longterm memory that includes memories of particular events anterograde amnesia Loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories forwardacting amnesia explicit memory Information or knowledge that can be consciously recollected clustering Organizing items into related groups during recall from long term memory cued recall A test of longterm memory that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue Encoding The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system implicit memory Information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but cannot be consciously recollected chunking Increasing the amount of information that can be held in short term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit or chunk interference theory The theory that forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another decay theory The view that forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes that occur in the brain over time longterm memory The stage of memory that represents the longterm storage of information encoding failure The inability to recall speci c information because of insuf cient encoding of the information for storage in longterm memory Amnesia Severe memory loss Dementia Progressive deterioration and impairment of memory reasoning and other cognitive functions occurring as the result of a disease or a condition maintenance rehearsal The mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20second duration of shortterm memory Memory The mental processes that enable you to retain and retrieve information over time misinformation effect A memorydistortion phenomenon in which a person39s existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information Schema An organized cluster of information about a particular topic proactive interference Forgetting in which an old memory interferes with remembering a new memory recall A test of longterm memory that involves retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cues retrieval The process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it retrieval cue A clue prompt or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in longterm memory Repression Motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously a memory that is blocked and unavailable to consciousness retrograde amnesia Loss of memory especially for episodic information retroactive interference Forgetting in which a new memory interferes with remembering an old memory shortterm memory The active stage of memory in which information is stored for up to about 20 seconds sensory memory The stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time serial position effect The tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle Key People Hermann Ebbinghaus German psychologist who originated the scienti c study of forgetting plotted the rst forgetting curve which describes the basic pattern of forgetting learned information over time Suzanne Corkin American neuropsychologist who has extensively investigated the neural basis of memory including several investigations of the famous amnesia patient HM Brenda Milner Canadian neuropsychologist whose groundbreaking research on the role of brain structures and functions in cognitive processes helped establish neuropsychology as a eld extensively studied the famous amnesia patient HM George Sperling American psychologist who identi ed the duration of visual sensory memory in a series of classic experiments in 1960 Memory retention AuditoryVisual memory gt Sensory memory gt Shortterm memory gt Long term memory AuditoryVisual memory gt Sensory memory Sensory input Sensory memory gt Shortterm memory Attention Shortterm memory gt Longterm memory Encoding Stage Model of Memory 0 Memory is initially recorded as sensory memory for a fraction of a second 0 Some info is transferred to shortterm memory for 30 seconds unless rehearsed Information we judge important and rehearse is then transferred to longterm memory Ebbinhaus Experiment forgetting curve Ebbinghaus tested his memory using threeletter nonsense syllables He relied on such nonsense words because relying on previously known words would have made use of his existing knowledge and associations in his memory In order to test for new information Ebbinghaus tested his memory for periods of time ranging from 20 minutes to 31 days His results plotted in what is known as the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve revealed a relationship between forgetting and time lnitially information is often lost very quickly after it is learned Factors such as how the information was learned and how frequently it was rehearsed play a role in how quickly these memories are lost Ebbinghausquot Forgetting Curve How much oFsomething do we forget each day 1 0 E very quick loss 75 20 min 58 left 4 1 11mm 4400 left already halfway gone l 6 days 2504 left 5339 1 day 33914 left 25 Day E Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Patient HM amnesia Henry Molaison had a lobotomy to cure his eppilepsy and as a side effect he cannot retain any memories Until studying him it had not been known that the hippocampus was essential for making memories and that if we lose both of them we will suffer a global amnesia Once this was realized the ndings were widely publicized so that this operation to remove both hippocampi would never be done again He had retrograde amnesia Sperling s experiment iconic memory he presents a matrix of 3 lines of four letters each to his subject for 50msec If the subject is asked to reproduce what he has seen on average four answers are correct Under partial report procedure a high medium or low pitched tone is produced at the same time as the presentation is over and the task given to the subject is to reproduce only the rst second or third line according to the pitch of the tone A performance in the order of three correct responses was obtained under these conditions Since the subject was unable to foretell what line he would be asked for to report it must be acknowledged that immediately after the end of the presentation the information necessary to recall the letters had to be available somewhere Chapter 7 Thinking Language and Intelligence Key Words achievement test A test designed to measure a person39s level of knowledge skill or accomplishment in a particular area Intuition Coming to a conclusion or making a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved comparative cognition The study of animal learning memory thinking andlanguage Language A system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an in nite number of meaningful statements Asperger39s syndrome Behavioral syndrome characterized by varying degrees of dif culty in social and conversational skills but normaltoabove average intelligence and language development often accompanied by obsessive preoccupation with particular topics or routines linguistic relativity hypothesis The hypothesis that differences among languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers availability heuristic A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how readily available other instances of the event are in memory mental age A measurement of intelligence in which an individual39s mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group functional xedness The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way Heritability The percentage of variation within a given population that is due to heredity intelligence quotient IQ A measure of general intelligence derived by comparing an individual39s score with the scores of others in the same age group Intelligence The global capacity to think rationally act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment aptitude test A test designed to assess a person39s capacity to bene t from education or training Prototype The most typical instance of a particular concept Cognition The mental activities involved in acquiring retaining and using knowledge representativeness heuristic A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the prototype of the event Heuristic A problemsolving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions Autism Behavioral syndrome associated with differences in brain functioning and sensory responses and characterized by impaired social interaction impaired verbal and nonverbal communication skills repetitive or odd motor behaviors and highly restricted interests and routines 9 factor or general intelligence The notion of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person39s overall performance on tests of mental ability stereotype threat A psychological predicament in which fear that you will be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong creates anxiety and selfdoubt lowering performance in a particular domain that is important to you triarchic theory of intelligence Robert Sternberg39s theory that there are three distinct forms of intelligence analytic creative and practical Key People 0 Alfred Binet French psychologist who along with French psychiatrist Theodore Simon developed the rst widely used intelligence test 0 Charles Spearman British psychologist who advanced the theory that a general intelligence factor called the g factor is responsible for overall intellectual functioning Howard Gardner Contemporary American psychologist whose theory of intelligence states that there is not one intelligence but multiple independent intelligences Claude Steele American social psychologist best known for his work on stereotype threat 0 Lewis Terman American psychologist who translated and adapted the BinetSimon intelligence test for use in the United States 0 Robert Sternberg Contemporary American psychologist whose triarchic theory of intelligence identi es three forms of intelligence analytic creative and practical David Wechsler American psychologist who developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale the most widely used intelligence test 0 Louis L Thurstone American psychologist who advanced the theory that intelligence is composed of several primary mental abilities and cannot be accurately described by an overall general or g factor measure Thinking o Thinking involves manipulating information mentally Some such tasks are forming concepts solving problems making decisions and re ecting in a critical or creative manner 0 Concepts are mental categories that can be used to group objects events and characteristics There are four reasons concepts are important First concepts allow us to generalize Second concepts allow us to associate experiences and objects Third concepts aid in memory Fourth they provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience 0 The prototype model is described as the way a person looks for a family resemblance when they are evaluating whether something belongs to a particular concept The prototype is based on the average characteristic or group of traits of a concept 0 Problem solving is an attempt to nd the appropriate way of achieving a goal when one is not readily available o Algorithms are strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem A recipe for cooking a dinner dish is an example of an algorithm o Heuristics are shortcut strategies that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer Biases and Heuristics o The con rmation bias is the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them The con rmation bias is even stronger when a person seeks out others who share his or her beliefs 0 Hindsight bias is the tendency for a person to report falsely that they predicted an outcome 0 The availability heuristic refers to a prediction about the probability of an event that is based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events o The representative heuristic refers to the tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or stereotypes rather than available information Intelligence o Intelligence refers to an allpurpose ability to do well on cognitive tests solve problems and learn from experience 0 Different cultures perceive intelligence differently o In psychology a person s intelligence is generally measured by an IQ test o The validity of a test is the extent to which the test measures what it intends to An important measure of validity is the degree to which it predicts an individual s performance when assessed by other measures 0 The reliability of a test is the extent to which the test yields a consistent measure that can be reproduced o If a test is valid it must also be reliable but not vice versa 0 Standardization refers to developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test The testing environment should be as uniform as possible for all individuals IQ Tests 0 Alfred Binet developed the rst intelligence test His designed the test to determine which students would not bene t from regular classroom instruction Binet developed the concept of what is known as a person s mental age MA meaning their level of mental development relative to that of others A person schronoogica age is the actual temporal age of the individual o Intelligence quotient IQ was developed by William Stern IQ is determined by a person s mental age divided by their chronological age and then multiplied by 100 If a person s mental age is the same as their chronological age their IQ is 100 which is average o A normal distribution is a bellshaped curve with the majority of the scores falling in the middle of the distribution o Many of the early intelligence tests were culturally biased because they favored individuals from urban rather than rural environments They were also biased toward people of middle as opposed to low socioeconomic status and toward white Americans rather than African Americans o Culturaly fair tests are intelligence tests that are designed to be culturally unbiased It is dif cult to develop a culturally unbiased test because intelligence is viewed differently by different cultures 0 Intelligence quotient IQ test Calculates the difference between a person s mental and chronological age IQ 100 x mental age chronological age 0 Normal 90 110 mental retardation 70 and below StanfordBinet scale Tests verbal abstractvisual and quantitative reasoning along with shortterm memory Weschler adult scale Tests general knowledge verbal mathematical spatial skills
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