Biological Basis of Life 27 Jan
Biological Basis of Life 27 Jan ANTHROP 2200 -0030
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ANTHROP 2200 -0030
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Frank Geopfert on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHROP 2200 -0030 at Ohio State University taught by Sharon Buck in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see Intro to Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Anthro 2200 27 Jan 2015 Biological Basis of Life Biological Basis of Life A Cells 1 Basic unit of life for all organisms 2 Prokaryotes a Single cell organism b No nucleus c First appeared 37 billion years ago 3 Eukaryotes a Multicellular b Has nucleus c First appeared 12 billion years ago 4 Nucleus a Houses genetic material b Covered by nuclear membrane a Keeps contents of nucleus separate from rest of cell 5 Two types of cells in multicellular organisms a Somatic a Body cells b Diploid i Full set of human chromosomes ii 46 total in 23 pairs b Gamete a SeX cell b Haploid i Half set of human chromosomes ii 23 total 11 DNA A 2 types of nucleic acid B DNA 1 Deoxyribonucleic acid 2 Double stranded molecule provides genetic code for organism C RNA 1 Ribonucleic acid D Discovery of DNA 1 James Watson and Francis Crick a 1953 Published details of DNA structure b 1962 Awarded Nobel Prize 2 Rosalind Franklin a Used X ray diffraction to produce high quality images of DNA E DNA Ladder 1 Composed of many nucleotides a 3 components to nucleotide a Deoxyribose sugar b Phosphate c One of four nitrogenous bases i Adenine A ii Thymine T iii Guanine G iv Cytosine C d Bases can only pair with specific bases i Adenine and Thymine ii Guanine and Cytosine b Consists of 2 uprights and many rungs a Uprights i Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules b Rungs i Paired nitrogenous bases F DNA 1 Chemical that makes up chromosomes 2 Has 2 jobs a Replication create perfect copy b Direct protein synthesis 3 Replication a Occurs in nucleus b Part of cell diVision a Mitosis creates somatic cell i 1 double stranded parent replicates into 2 double stranded daughter strands ii 1 chromosome gt 2 sister chromatids b Meiosis creates gamete cell i 2 steps 1 Separate strands of DNA 2 Create new complimentary strands a Exposed nitrogen bases of parent strand attract complimentary free oating nucleotides 9 Once all unpaired bases are paired replication is complete 4 Chromosomes a Way DNA is packed inside the nucleus b Occurs in pairs a Homologous chromosomes i Individual chromosomes inherited from different parents ii Not the same as sister chromatids c Chromosomes numbers differ from species to species a Humans have 46 total chromosomes d 2 different types a Autosomes i Govern all morphology except seX determination I 44 in humans in 22 pairs b SeX chromosomes i XX female XY male ii SeX determined by sperm e Karyotype a Complete set of chromosomes b 22 pairs of autosomes 1 pair of seX chromosomes 5 Mitosis a Creates new somatic cells b Replication produces 2 diploid cells a Chromosomes line up down the middle 6 Meiosis a Creates new gamete cells b Replication a Occurs in 2 stages i Meiosis 1 I 1 parent 2 non identical daughter cells 2 Chromosomes line up in homologous pairs ii Meiosis 2 I Daughter cells divide again a No DNA replication 2 Results in 4 haploid daughter cells a 23 chromosomes each with no pairs c Why Important a Meiosis creates Variation b Each gamete contains 1 chromosome per homologous pair c Each parent contributes 12 of genetic material d Crossing Over a Recombination i Homologous pairs exchange small pieces of information b Trans location i Segments exchange between non homologous chromosomes c Nondisjunction i Failure of homologous chromosomes pairs to separate 7 Protein Synthesis a Protein a Complex chemicals that make up tissues and bring about functions repair and growth of tissues b Defined by a particular combination and number of linked amino acids b 2 types of synthesis a Transcription i Creation of messenger RNA mRNA based on DNA template b Translation i Transfer of amino acids by transfer RNA tRNA to ribosome ii Amino acids added to growing protein chain c Transcription a Parent DNA unzips into 2 daughter strands i 1 daughter strand anticoding strand serves as mRNA template ii Free oating RNA nucleotides match anticoding strand b mRNA leaves nucleus for cytoplasm c RNA contains uracil instead of thymine i DNA CGA CCT ii mRNA GCU GGA d Translation a Codon i Sequence of 3 nitrogen bases in mRNA strand coded to produce a specific amino acid b Anti codon i Sequence of 3 nitrogen bases carried by tRNA c mRNA attaches to ribosome in cytoplasm d tRNA carrying amino acid and anti codon recognize and bind With complementary base pair sequence in mRNA e amino acid becomes chemically linked by peptide bond forming polypeptide chain protein 111 Genes A Sequence of DNA on chromosome coded to produce a specific protein B Not all segments of DNA are expressed IV VI VII VIII 1 Introns not expressed junk DNA 2 Exons expressed C 3 types of genes 1 Structural a Produce proteins that form physical attributes 2 Regulatory a Proteins that control timing and processes of development 3 Homeotic a Regulatory genes that control embryological development Polymorphism A Variation in specific genes B Presence of 2 or more phenotypes for certain genes in a population C Cline l Gradual change in frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographic region to another ABO Blood Group System A Codominant system B Red blood cells have structures antigens on surface that identify them as A B AB or O C Wrong blood type stimulates production of antibodies that kill foreign antigens in body Mitochondrial DNA A Cellular organelle that provides energy B Inherited from mother only Y chromosome A Inherited from father only B Men are more susceptible to sex linked deleterious traits Complexity of Genetics A Mendelian traits are simple 1 Controlled by single gene 2 Little in uence by environment B Most traits of interest to anthropologists are complex 1 Controlled by multiple genes 2 Heavily in uenced by environment 3 Continuous distribution C Polygenic 1 1 phenotypic trait affected by 2 or more genes D Pleiotropic 1 1 gene affects more than 1 phenotypic trait
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