Prisons- Chapter 3
Prisons- Chapter 3 SOCIOL4611
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Curtis on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIOL4611 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Edward Rhine in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Prisons, Jails, and Community Corrections in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Chapter 3 The Pendulum Swing Con icting Correctional Ideologies The ldeology Systematic body of ideas and practices Correctional ldeology Systematic body of ideas and practices that pertain to the processing of offenders Punishment ldeology Painful sanction applied to the offender who is seen as an enemy of society Rehabilitation ldeology Crime prevention through treatment of offenders and inmates to rehabilitate such offenders Prevention ldeology Avoidance or reduction of criminal behavior using methods and programs that contributes to crime prevention Punishment Ideology Retribution Retribution Getting even with the offender who has violated the rights of others and deserves to be punished quotSocial Revengequot Suggests that individuals cannot exact punishment but that the state will do so in their name Tis idea runs counter to the 8th Amendment s prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment Deterrence Deterrent Effect The extent of crime control by incapacitation threat of punishment or announced potential criminal sanction General Deterrence Prevention potential criminal behavior by making examples of offenders openly the message here would be See what will happen to you if you commit crime Speci c Deterrence Punishing individual offenders to prevent their further criminal behavior Stigma of Conviction Effect of labeling interference with ordinary social functioning and resulting diminishment of offender In order for punishment to serve as a deterrent it must be swift visible to others closely linked to the forbidden action so that is discourages future recurrences of that crime certain and categorical lncapacha on lncapacitation Depriving offenders of the ability to commit additional crime usually through imprisonment Theory of Disablement Preventing offenders from commission of more crime through isolation death banishment or mutilation Selective lncapacitation lncapacitating highrisk offenders believed to pose substantial probability of additional crime usually through imprisonment Recidivism Continued criminal activity following initial lawviolating behavior The Effect of Punishment 0 Punishment can be effective when applied in the right amounts and at the right time 0 They overlook any positive actions by offenders Often such punishments motivate offenders to become more sophisticated criminals Those people for whom punishment is least effective are Psychopathic risk takers Those under the in uence of drugs or alcohol Those with a history of being punished The Rehabilitation Ideology The main difference between the rehabilitation and punishment ideologies is that in the former offenders are assigned to the institution for a correctional program intended to prepare them for readjustment to or reintegration into the community not just for punishment and con nement The Quaker reform movement supplied prisoners with a bible for reading and doing penitence to nd their way back to God Reformatory Movement Offenders are unfortunate persons whose education training and discipline are inadequate offenders should be sent to an educational penal institution for reform Educational Doctrine Correctional approach seeking to provide crime prevention by education emphasizing vocational and educational skills and teaching inmates to discipline themselves Medical Model Model that sees the causes of crime as lying within the individual and stressed providing treatment and therapy until the offender is well Leaders in the medical model were Sanford Bates and the Federal Bureau of Prisons Indeterminate Sentencing Judge imposes a minimum and maximum period of incarceration time under the assumption that a parole board will identify the maximum bene t from imprisonment and subsequently release the inmate Has been abandoned in corrections it is still very much alive in substance abuse treatment Reintegration Model Doctrine that assumes crimes are caused by the community with the assumption that community resources should be garnered and provided by local agencies to prevent recidivism The The Prevention Ideology Recidivism rates range from 40 to 70 Seek to keep youth involved in school Emile Durkheim Early sociologist who believed that crime in some form was an inevitable accompaniment to society The greatest crimeprevention device ever invented was the streetlight Community Corrections A model of corrections based on the assumption that the offender should be reintegrated into the community through existing and potential community services Diversion Minimizing offender processing through the justice system by imposing treatment supervision and referral of offenders to service providers outside of the justice system Pendulum Swings As the populations of the country s jails and prisons have grown to almost unmanageable proportions administrators and legislatures become more willing to accept the turn backward in order to have at least some way 0 cope with the growing and more violent criminal populations quotGetToughquot Laws Belief that offenders should be punished to prevent criminal recidivism such laws would lengthen the term of incarceration and minimize use of community resources two important law programs are using the determinate sentence and compelling the inmate to serve a large percentage of the imposed sentence Restorative justice Restorative justice Punishment intended to repair the damages done by the offender s crimes against the victim and the community The BARj model responds to many issues raised by the victim s movement including concerns that victims have had little opportunity for input into the resolution of their own cases rarely feel heard and often receive no restitution or expression of remorse from the offender Balanced and Restorativejustice Philosophy 0 Crime control cannot be achieved without the active involvement of the community Balanced Approach and Its Application 1 2 3 4 Make needed services available for victims of crime Give victims opportunities for involvement and input Actively involve community members Build connections among community members 5 Give offenders the opportunityencouragement to take responsibility 6 Actively involve offenders in repairing the harm they caused Contemporary Corrections Five important developments in corrections have occurred during the last three decades of the 20th century 1 Abandonment of the medical model 2 3 Search for punishments that would be more effective than court Shift to determinate sentencing ordered probation and less severe than longterm incarceration the socall intermediate sanctions Renewed emphasis on rehabilitation and effective programming for offenders 5 Restorative justice Determinate Sentencing Judgeimposed xed term of incarceration with the expectation the inmate will serve that amount of time
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