Popular in Microbiology for Veterinary Technicians
Popular in Science
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennie Edmanson on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CPB 35100 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Tracy Vemulapalli in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Microbiology for Veterinary Technicians in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
The Opportunists Staphylococcus Streptococcus and Enterococcus 1 EpidemiologicalTriad a Host i Anatomy horses GI cattle respiratory ii Immune system immunosuppressed patients iii Concurrent Disease b Agent i Virulence factors ii Environmental hardiness sporeformer iii Dose 10quot2 vs10quot8 c Environment i Poor husbandry ii Crowded conditions 2 Terminology a Frank Pathogen any disease producing agent or microorganism b Opportunistic a microorganism which does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances c Commensal organism living on or within another organism and deriving bene t without harming or bene ting the host individual 3 Staphylococcus a Morphology and staining i Sphe cal ii Gram positive iii 0515 micrometers iv Form irregular grapelike clusters pairs short chains b Where does it come from i Ubiquitous found everywhere ii Normally not pathogenic iii Needs a way to enter the host quotchink in the armorquot c Biochemical characteristics i Facultative anaerobes ii Variable encapsulation iii Catalase positive 1 Differentiates Staphylococcus from Steptococcus spp d Resistance i Withstand drying for weeks ii Blactam antimicrobials 1 Plasmidencoded penicillinase 2 Plasmid exchange among streptococci and bacilli 3 Sensitive to disinfectants chlorhexidine e Where there is pus there is Staph i Skin commensal ii Suppuration NEUTROPHILSDABSCESSES f Clinical disease in dogs and cats i Pyoderma 1 More common in dogs 2 Predisposing factors atopy trauma 3 Otitis externa secondary to atopy 4 Osteomyelitis ii Mastitis 1 Damage to the teatD skin staph move up teat canal infection iii Urinary tract infection 1 Skin staph ascend urethral colonize in sterile bladderD UTI D bladder stones g Staphylococcus pseudintermedius i Highly similar to Sintermedius ii Needs DNA sequencing to distinguish iii Species affected 1 Dogs cats horses donkeys iv Only report S intermedius if proven genetically v Increasing methicillin resistance h Guinea PigAvian quotBumblefootquot i S aureus 1 Pododermatitis 2 Abscess formation 3 Can affectjoints 4 Predisposing factors a Secondary to trauma b Poor husbandry i Ruminant i Mastitis 1 S aureus most common 2 Economic decrease in milk production 3 Preacute gangrene can occur 4 Predisposing factors a Abscess formation j Horses i Saureus 1 Mastitis 2 Abscesses a Pectoral b Spermatic cord after castration c Wound infection d 3 Predisposing factors a Woundsdermatitis b Surgical c Teat injury k quotGreasy pig diseasequot i S hyicus Very young piglets Systemic rapid fatal Lungs lymph nodes kidney brain Skin thick greybrown exudate Older pigs a Less severe lesions b May be more marked on head 6 Reservoir transmission a Vaginal colonization in sows and gilts I Diagnosis i Culture ii Gram staining iii Catalase positive iv Coagulase test 1 Tube agglutination test 2 Putative staphylococcal cells from plate added to plasma containing anticlotting agent 3 Incubate tube at 37 C 4 Examine in 1824 hours v Sensitivity testing increasing multiple resistance vi Other tests 1 ELISA S aureus m Treatment Control Prevention i Vaccination is not effective ii Treatment 1 Antibiotics 2 surgical intervention 3 Increasing multidrug and methicillin resistance iii Control and prevention 1 Good husbandry a Sanitation b Reduce stress c Biosecurity 2 Preventive maintenance on equipment 4 MethicillinResistant S aureus MRSA a Methicillin not in use at RX b BIactams i Oxacillin ii Penicillin iii Amoxicillin c Has a penicillinbinding protein PBP2a that is exported to capsuIe i Gene encoding PBP2a is part of a mobile DNA cassette quotjumping genequot ii Can jump to other species of bacteria iii Can pick up other resistance genes d Other staph spp Can carry PBP2a i Methicillin resistant S aureus MRSA ii Methicillinresistant S pseudintermedius MRSP iii Methicillinresistant S epidermidis MRSE Tend to be multidrug resistant Zoonoticanthroponotic potential g Sample collection i Swab of lesion ii Asymptomatic carrier 1 Nasal swab 2 Rectal swab 3 Suspicious Iesions THCD 5 Bio lms a Anatomy i Bacterial aggregate ii Extracellular polysaccharides 1 Capsule 2 Sticks to surfaces b Resistant to antibiotics and host immune clearance 6 Steptococcus Gram positive Nonmotile cocci to ovid Single pairs long chains Facultative anaerobes Catalase negative Widely distributed Environmentally resistant Colonize i Skin ii Gi tract iii Genital tract iv Upper respiratory tract i Transmission i Direct contact ii Fomites HL lngeonn iv Inhalation j Pathology i Abscess formation brous capsule k Classi cation hemolysis on blood agar i Alpha 1 Green discoloration 2 Commensal strep ii Beta 1 Clearing of agar around colony 2 Erythrocytes lysed 3 Most pathogens in this group iii Gamma 1 Nonhemolytic 2 Most nonpathogenic iv Lance eld group 1 Most betahemolytic l Virulence factors i Cell wall ii Capsule poorly antigenic 1 Helps evade immune response 2 Does not bind complement wellantiphagocytic iii Has ability to spread to deeper tissues iv Can destroy host DNA WBC host tooth enamel through acid production m Anthroponosis Streptococcus pneumonia i Cause of human pneumonia ii Humans are reservoir for animal illness orhrDQpUpJ iii Guinea pigs horses n S agaactiae i Contagious mastitis in dairy cattle 1 Obligate mammary pathogen 2 Identi cation aided by CAMP test 0 CAMP test i Hemolytic synergism 1 Staphylococcal Beta toxin and quotCAMP factorquot of Sagaactiae 2 Synergism causes a are of increased hemoysis CAMP Positive 5 a ureus Strep again ctia e Strep pyoyenes iM Mitrulltlsiilirunmn l39nIIImII p BOVINE MASTITIS NEED TO KNOW THIS i Once you ID an isoIate as a streptococci you should do a CAMP test and hemoytic pattern on blood agar ii This will aid in nal diagnosis of bacterial species of bovine mastitis q Equine quotStranglesquot S equissp equi i Beta hemoytic encapsulated ii Clinical signs 1 Fever purulent rhinitispharyngitis 2 Upper airways gutturaI pouches 3 Abscessed lymph nodes typicaIIy mandibularDrupture 4 Occasionally goes systemic 5 Chronic carrier state possible iii Diagnosis 1 CuIture nasaI swabwash FNA abscess iv Treatment 1 Antibiotics bases on culture and sensitivity v CIient education 1 Very contagious 2 Shedding usually 2448 hours after fever onset 3 Separate affected horses before this period to stop spread vi Immunity 1 About 75 develop protective immunity lasting up to 5 years 2 25 can be infected again within months vii Prevention 1 Vaccine r Flesheating streptococci in Animals i Flesheating step is VERY RARE in pets ii Few small outbreaks in dogs and cats from 1996present 7 Enterococcus rthOO39QJ O Gram positive Cocci pairs chains Facultative anaerobe Commensal GI Multiple antibiotic resistant Dogs and cats i Asymptomatic colonization Diarrheaassociated enterococci i Associated with diarrhea in puppies kittens foals calves piglets infant rats ii E durans E hirae E vilorum Opportunistic infection i Dirty overcrowded environment ii Very stressed animals Va ncomycinResistant enterococcus i Nosocomial infection in human patients ii Transposable elementquotjumping genequot iii Notjust vanR 1 Resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics