Gram Positive Rods; Actinomyces and Arcanobacterium
Gram Positive Rods; Actinomyces and Arcanobacterium CPB 35100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennie Edmanson on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CPB 35100 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Tracy Vemulapalli in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Microbiology for Veterinary Technicians in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Gram Positive Rods Actinomyces TruepereIa and Bacillus Lecture 1 ActinomycesActinomycosis quotLumpyJawquot a b th Never swab a draining sinus will always be contaminated Collect sample via FNA aspirate lesion to obtain small amount of viscous pus note small hard yellow quotgranulesquot in exudate i Yellow granules sulphur granules Actinomyces bovis Lumpy jaw in cattle i can affect sheep dogs pigs and other mammals ii Classi ed as higher bacteria iii Bacillary and coccoid shapes iv Gram positive rods v Anaerobic microaerophilic Actinomyces species grows poorly in Sabouraud39s dextrose agar i Characteristic that differentiates them from Nocardia and Streptomyces spp Slow growth on blood agar in 47 days up to 14 days Habitat i Normal ora of the oral cavity and GI tract of many species ii Source of infection is endogenous iii Disease is opportunistic 1 Requires disruption of mucosal barriers by trauma rough feed foreign bodies 2 DISEASE IS USUALLY NEAR WHERE THEY ARE FOUND AS NORMAL FLORA Pathogenesis i Swelling enlarges few weeksseveral months ii Can39t move lump part of bone bone envolvement iii Lump will break though skin eventually 1 Discharge through one or more openings 2 Pus contains hard tiny yellow granulesD sulfur granules Species affected Horse ii Cow iii Goats iv Swine Actinomyces suis udder actinomycosis or quotlumpy uddeW39 v Dogs 1 Needs chink in the armor 2 Can be from foxtail seeds Treatment i Treat or not treat is debated ii Rarely successful treatments in chronic cases iii Relapses are very common 2 TruepereIa pyogenes a Pathogenesis i Species cattle sheep swine and goats ii Opportunistic pathogen iv v b Exam i iii iv Normal inhabitant of mucous membranes respiratory GI urogenital tract Trauma or previous microbial infection required Can disseminate to cause suppurative infections pus ples of disease Live lung abscesses Polyarthritis Summer mastitis in dry cows Abortion in dairy cattle 1 Sporadic 2 At any stage in pregnancy c Diagnosis Culture 1 Clinical signs are not speci c and not enough to diagnose Treat after susceptibility test 1 Resistance is common a Changes year to year 3 Bacillus a Species i Gram positive ii Form endospores iii Appear as long chains or pairs iv Most are motile 1 Bacillus anthracis is not motile v Bacillus anthracis cause of anthrax vi Bacillus cereus food borne illness vii Geobacillus stearothermophilus vials used for autoclave quality control viii Bacillus subtiis laboratory reference strain for spore formers testing strips for autoclave quality control b Spores i ii iii Ubiquitous widespread in nature B Anthracis spores can survive for more than 50 years in the soil Resistance to drying high temperatures chemical disinfectants c Clinical correlation i d Anthrax Bacillus a i ii iii Validate sterilization 1 Geobacillus stearothermophilus a Used to validate steam penetration in the autoclave b Place vial in center of autoclave load or surgical pack Run autoclave heat and humidity should kill spores Remove vial ant streak contents on agar plate lf autoclave running correctly no growth nthracis Affects all mammals and humans Endemic in some countries Cows and other ruminants are highly susceptiblelj rapid fatal septicemiaD death C d e iv vi vii viii be wary of buying items made from cattle skin like African drums Transmission 1 lnhalationDleads to rapid death 2lngeonn 3 Wounds Suspect anthrax 1 If carcass shows no rigor mortis 2 Blood coming out of most ori ces mouth nostrils anus a Due to disseminated intravascular coagulopathy DIC which is a running out of clotting factors 3 ZOONOTIC Client education 1 Vaccine 2 Treatable with penicillin 3 Clean up a Isolate the sickincontact animals b Incinerate carcassesdo not open animals for necropsy or eld dressing spores will be released c Bury DEEP 68 feet deep away from water sources 0 Disinfect everything that can be formalin or peracetic acids Bioterrorism 1 Anthrax attacks in 2001 a Anthrax was weaponized thought to be an inside job Anthrax spores on envelopes and mailed to senators in Washington DC c Anthrax is now on list of CDC39s quotSelect Agentsquot 2 Very restricted use in research and diagnostic labs a Aerosol leading risk to laboratories b Everything must be done in biosafety cabinet b e Bacillus cereus and the case of sticky rice i ii iii Sporeformer Rice initially bulkcooked at high temps 1 Initially kills vegetative organisms 2 Not high enough to kill organisms that have formed spores Rice is kept on a warmer in the buffet line B cereus sporulatesD vegetative form proliferates D customer eats rice 12 hours later GI upset vomiting diarrhea
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