NUTRI 2000 Chapter 7 Notes
NUTRI 2000 Chapter 7 Notes Nutrition 2000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katie Vines in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
Chapter 7: Energy Balance and Weight Control Section 7.1: Energy Balance • Energy balance: the energy you take in (food) matches the energy you put out (calorie burn) - Positive energy balance: when you eat more calories than you burn. - Negative energy balance: when you eat fewer calories than you burn. • Basal metabolism (BMR): the minimum amount of calories the body needs to support itself in a fasting state (not eating). - 1 kcal/kg for men per hour - .9 kcal/kg for women per hour • Resting metabolism: the amount of calories the body uses when a person hasn’t eaten for 4 hours. • Thermic effect of food: when your metabolism is increased during the absorption, digestion, and metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats. • Bomb calorimeter: a device that determines how many calories are in a food. Section 7.2: Determination of Energy Use by the Body • Direct calorimeter: measuring the heat released from a person’s body to determine their energy use. This is done in an insulated chamber. • Indirect calorimeter: measuring the oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output to determine the energy used by a person’s body. Section 7.3: Assessing Healthy Body Weight • Body mass index (BMI): the weight that a person should be at based on their height. - Underweight: less than 18.5 - Healthy weight: between 18.5 and 24.9 - Overweight: between 25 and 29.9 - Obese: between 30-39.9 - Severely obese: over 40 • Ways to determine body fat content - Under water weighing: weighing a person under water on a standard scale to determine body fat. - Air displacement: when a person goes into a chamber and the volume space they take up determines their body fat. - Bioelectrical impedance: when a low energy electrical current is put through a person to see how much body fat they have. The higher the body fat, the more resistance from the current. - Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA): multiple low energy x rays that are used to determine body composition and bone mass. This is the most accurate. Chapter 7: Energy Balance and Weight Control • Obesity: a condition where too much fat on the body can lead to further health complications. - Upper body obesity: this type of obesity is caused by insulin resistance and is also known as central/abdominal obesity, where there is excess fat in the abdominal region. (Apple shaped) o This can lead to health problems like diabetes, high blood lipids, and heart disease. - Lower body obesity: this type of obesity is triggered by estrogen and progesterone hormones and leads to larger thighs and gluteus. (Pear shaped) Section 7.4: Why Some People Are Obese—Nature Versus Nurture • Genetic and environmental factors can increase the risk of obesity. - Where your fat is stored, is determined by genetics. - Genes account for 70% of the weight differences between people. • Identical twins show the same weight gain patterns. • Humans have a thrifty metabolism—this means that their bodies store fat readily, just incase it ever needs it. • Set point theory: states that humans have a genetically pre determined body weight/fat content. • Leptin: a hormone that is made by adipose tissue, which influences the regulation of fat mass. Section 7.5: Treatment of Overweight and Obesity • Medications for weight loss: drugs that help a person lose weight. Usually used for people with a BMI of 30 or higher or a BMI of 27 to 29.9 with weight related medical conditions (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) - Amphetamine: medications that enhance central nervous system stimulation. • Obesity treatments - Very low calorie diets (VLCD): a diet that puts an obese person on 400-800 calories per day (more proteins that carbs). - Gastroplasty: a surgery where doctors staple a persons’ stomach so that they eat less. - Sleeve gastrectomy: a surgery where doctors reduce a persons’ stomach to about the size of a banana. • Types of diets - Unreliable diets: weight loss diets that typically aren’t safe and possess the following qualities o Quick weight loss o Limit food selections o Recommend expensive supplements o Claim that there is no need to exercise Chapter 7: Energy Balance and Weight Control - High protein, low carb diets: where most of a person’s calories come from protein, and minimal calories come from carbs. - Carb focused diets: where most all calories come from carbs, and minimal come from fats and proteins. - Low fat diets: where fats are kept to a minimum in a person’s diet.