Leadership and Followership
Leadership and Followership PSYC 2160
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brian Mojica on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2160 at George Washington University taught by Offerman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Group Dynamics in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Leadership and Followership 12122014 lLT Theory Model Peoples underlying assumptions stereotypes beliefs and schemas in uence the extent to which they view someone as a good leader Working De nition of Leadership 0 Leadership is the guidance of others in their pursuits often by organizing directing coordinating supporting and motivating their e o s o Reciprocal o Transactional o Transformational o Cooperative 0 Adaptive Locus of Leadership After Hollander 1978 Leadership MYTHS Leadership is power leadership can be with people rather than over people Leaders are born leaders can also be madequot 0 All groups have leaders large groups tend to require a leader some groups selfmanage People resist their leaders most groups accept the need for a leader Leaders make or break their groups 0 The romance of leadershipquot exaggerates the impact of a leader 0 Leaders do make a difference in many contexts Approaches to Leadership and Followership Trait models Behavioral Models Situational Models RelationalIn uence Models Can study either leader emergence andor leader effectiveness within each model Trait approaches who will lead Early explanations of leadership studied the traits of great leaders Great Manquot theories 0 Belief that people were born with these traits and only the great people possessed them 0 Researchers and reviewers compared the characteristics of leaders to nonleaders found few differences Stogdill o A few characteristics correlated but they were weak or didn t generalize across situations 0 Emerging consensus that leaders do possess certain qualities that set them apart but qualities may differ across different s uanns Eagly s social role theory lLT are not consistent with intuitive expectations about men and women quotthink leader think malequot Women tend to adopt participative and transformational styles of leadership Men more likely to enact autocratic laissezfaire and transactional styles Transformational Leadership by Gender ldealized In uence attributes motivates respect by association with leader FgtM ldealized In uences behavior communicates values purpose and mission Inspirational Motivation optimism excitement about goals and future FgtM Intellectual Stimulation new perspectives on task and problem solving Individualized Consideration develops mentors followers attends to individual needs FgtM Charisma ltLa Weber o A form of in uence based on follower perceptions that the leader has exceptional qualities Occurs during times of social crisis 0 Leader has a radical vision attracting followers to the vision and to seeing the leader as gifted Charisma is rare Neocharismatic Approaches 0 Different approaches some commonalities 0 Followers identify with leaders Leaders actively manage impressions Leaders model exemplary behavior Leaders show con dence in followers More likely in crisis situations and with followers who have greater need or preference for such leaders Leader Effectiveness Fielder studied various leaders and organizations 0 Preferred to only study groups with clear indicators of effectivenessperformance eg teams with winloss records military squads 0 Revised and extended model based on data Least Preferred Coworker Scale LPC 0 Will measure if you are more task oriented or relationship oriented Fielder s LPC Model 0000 P F O R C i LPG V I Low if e e e Situaun llFamr hl nes if if Other Models 0 Leadership style models Effectiveness depends on the combination of leader s task and relationship behaviors Leadership Grid Blake and Mouton 0 Assume that people vary in their concern for others and in their concern for results and that individuals who are high on both dimensions 99 are the best leaders TIE Leahrship Grid High r n quot Ennuarn fur pen pla Law 1 E E 4 5 IS F E E3 High Ehrmrn fur Pmmhn Situational Leadership Theory Hersey and Blanchard Suggest that groups bene t from leadership that meshes with the developmental stage of the group 0 Telling characterized by oneway communication in which the leader de nes the roles of the individual or group and provides the what how why when and where to do the task 0 Selling while the leader is still providing direction he or she is now using twoway communication and providing the socio emotional support that will allow the individual or group being in uenced to buy into the process 0 Participating this is how shared decisionmaking about aspect of how the task is accomplished and the leader is providing less task behaviors while maintaining high relationship behavior 0 Delegating the leader is still involved in decisions but the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual I a n n n Inndnr ctnvc invnlvnrl l39n mnnil39nr nrnnrncc EITU TIH L LE DEH EHIPI J HIGH LE DEH EHAUIHE T a familiaremail a lluw EUPF H UE HELEN ElliIEHIP EEI39l HINGE En21anisiurmiliu a n 1 F r i View 7 1 l tel till Lt int i i 1 l A 4 THE HiEH fl H HIG H DIRECTIUE HBLE BUT HP ELE HHD WLLIHG I IHEEEUFEE IHEECUHE 539 ig fi W V E as l ELE r IllIn BLE UT WLLIHG WLLIHG EDHFITDEHT EMFIDEHT FULLWEH HEAIHEEE LeaderMember Exchange Theory LMX o Leaders and followers are linked dyadically Two subgroups of linkages exist the quotin groupquot and the out groupquot n In group members have better quality relationships with the leader go beyondquot a Out group members and leaders exchange based more on stipulations of contract Groups with more in group members are more productive and satis ed Transforming Leadership lt La James McGregor Burns 0 Appeals to the moral values of the followers Raises follower awareness of ethical issues and motivation to reform Increases follower commitment and energy to the causemission Contrasts with transacting leadership which appeals to follower self interest 0 Popular in political circles social causes Transformational Leadership lt La Bass 0 More task oriented than Burns notion of transforming leadership 0 Less oriented toward elevating the follower s ethical values 0 More focused on delivering better follower performance 0 Factors ldealized In uence AKA charisma inspirational motivation individualized consideration intellectual stimulation 0 Popular in organizational literature
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