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edc 217

by: Jaslyn Tirado
Jaslyn Tirado
La Salle
GPA 3.5

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Learning and teaching of math
Anne m. Fowler
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaslyn Tirado on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Edc 217-41 at La Salle University taught by Anne m. Fowler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Learning and teaching of math in Education and Teacher Studies at La Salle University.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
Notes for 217 Marzano: Strategies That Affect Student Achievement  Teaching basic and advanced vocabulary o Teaching basic and advanced vocabulary is focused on providing a framework for direct instruction in basic terms//those words that are critical to understanding and using the English language...these words can be considered absolutely necessary for all students to master if they are to be successful navigating their way through a society that relies on the English language as the primary medium of communication.  Identifying similarities and differences o Comparing: the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or ideas o Classifying: the process of grouping things that are alike into categories on the basis of their characteristics o Metaphors: the process of identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then finding another topic that appears to be quite different but has the same general pattern o Analogies: help us to see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar  Summarizing and note taking o To summarize, students must delete some information and add some information. To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. Strategies that emphasize the analytic aspect of summarizing produce the most powerful effects. o Note-taking is closely related to summarizing. Notes should be considered a work in progress. This implies that teachers should systematically provide time for students to go back over their notes—reviewing and revising them.  Reinforcing effort and providing recognition o “Reinforcing effort and providing recognition for the attainment of specific goals not only enhances achievement, but it stimulates motivation.”  Homework and practice o “Homework and practice are ways of extending the school day and providing students with opportunities to refine and extend their knowledge. Teachers can use both of these practices as powerful instructional tools.”  Nonlinguistic representations o Nonlinguistic representation is part of the “dual-coding” theory of information storage— a linguistic form and an imagery form. A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representations such as graphic representations, making physical models, generating mental pictures, drawing picture and pictographs, and engaging in kinesthetic.  Cooperative learning o Organizing students in cooperative learning groups has a powerful effect on learning. Five defining elements of cooperative learning are: positive interdependence, face-to- face promotive interaction, individual and group accountability, interpersonal and small group skills, and group processing. Cooperative groups should be kept small in size. The ideal number in a group is 3-4 students. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that works best when applied systematically—at least once a week.  Setting objectives (goals) and providing feedback o “Goal-setting is the process of establishing a direction for learning. This is a skill that successful people have mastered to help them realize both short-term and long-term desires.” o “The best feedback appears to involve an explanation as to what is accurate and what is inaccurate in terms of student responses.”  Generating and testing hypotheses o The most powerful and analytic of cognitive operations is generating and testing hypotheses. Generating and testing hypotheses involves the application of knowledge. Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in an inductive or deductive manner. The process of explaining their thinking helps students deepen their understanding of the principles they are applying.  Questions, cues, and advance organizers o Cues involve hints about what students are about to experience. o Questions perform about the same function. Cueing and questioning are at the heart of classroom practice. Cueing and questioning might account for as much as 80 percent of what occurs in a given classroom on a given day. Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. Higher level questions produce deeper learning that lower level questions cannot, i.e. Blooms. o Advanced organizers combine the linguistic mode in that they use words and phrases, and the nonlinguistic mode in that they use symbols and arrows to represent relationships.


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