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# CE 260 Traversing Notes

UA

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Woods on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.

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Date Created: 02/10/15

TRAVERSING Steps For Making Traverse Computations 1 Adjusting angles or directions to xed geometric conditions 2 Determining preliminary azimuths or Bearings of the traverse lines 3 Calculating departures and latitudes and adjusting them for misclosure 4 Computing rectangular coordinates of the traverse stations 5 Calculating the lengths and azimuth s or Bearings of the traverse lines after adjustment Angle Misclosure The angular misclosure for an interiorangle traverse is the difference between the sum of the observed angles and the sum of the geometrically correct angles Sum of Interior Angles of any closed polygon zzln 2180 Sum of Exterior Angles of any closed Polygon zzln2j180 Misclosure czK Balancing Angles Done by applying an average correction to each angle where observing conditions were approximately the same at all stations The correction of each angle is found by dividing the total angular misclosure by the number of angles Azimuth Angle measure of a traverse line clockwise from the positive yaxis north Departure The departure of a course is its orthographic projection on the eastwest axis of the survey and is equal to the length of the course multiplied by the sine of it39s azimuth angle Latitude The latitude of a course is its orthographic projection on the northsouth axis of the survey and is equal to the length of the course multiplied by the cosine of it39s azimuth angle Departure and Latitude Misclosure For a closedpolygon traverse if all angles are measured perfectly the sum of the departures of all courses in the traverse should equal zero If they do not that nonzero sum is called the Departure Misclosure Likewise for the Latitudes For a closed linktype traverse the sum of all departures The Departure Misclosure should equal the total difference in departure A X between the starting and ending points likewise for the latitudes Linear Misclosure Because of the inevitable errors in the angles and distances of a traverse course if you were to begin at point A of a closedpolygon traverse and progressively follow each course for it s observed distance along it s preliminary bearing or azimuth you would nally return not to point A but to a nearby point A The distance between A and A is the linear misclosure Linear M isclosure Departure M isclosure 2 Latitude M isclosure 2 Linear M isclosure Relative Precision 2 Length of Total Traverse Compass Bowditch Rule The bowditch rule adjusts the departures and latitudes of traverse courses in proportion to their lengths Total D6196 n e Misczosure Length Of AB Departure Correction for a course AB Traverse Perimeter T t l L t39t d M 39 l Latitude Correction for acourse AB 0 a a l u e 156 osure Length of AB Traverse Perimeter Coordinates Typically we assign Y0 to the most southerly point and XO to the most westerly station When calculating the rest of the coordinates X B X A Departue of AB Y B Y A Latitude of AB CALCULATING TRAVERSE AREA Methods for Calculating Area from Field Measurements 1 Division of the tract into simple gures triangles rectagles etc 2 Offsets from a straight line 3 Coordinates 4 DMD DoubleMeridian Distances Volumes Three Principle Methods Used to Calculate Volume 1 CrossSection Method 2 UnitArea or BorrowPit Method 3 ContourArea Method CrossSection Method CrossSectioning consists of observing ground elevations and their corresponding distances left and right perpendicular to the centerline Readings must be taken at the centerline at high and low points and at locations where slope changes occur to determine the ground pro le accurately This can be done in the eld using a level level rod and tape Typical Highway Excavation Facts 0 Road width on highways etc is usually wider on the quotcutquot sections opposed to the ll sections to account for drainage ditches The side slope depends on the type of soil encountered Side slopes in lls are usually atter than those in cuts where the soil remains in its natural state 0 Side slopes of 11 and ll slopes of 1121 might be satisfactory for ordinary loam soils but 1121 in excavation and 21 in embankment are common Horizontal Curves Two Types Circular and Spiral Tips 1 Simple Curves are the most common 2 Compound brokenback and reverse curves are unsuitable for modern highspeed highway rapid transit and railroad traf c and she be avoided if possible However they are sometimes necessary in mountainous terrain to avoid excessive grades or very deep cuts and lls Compound curves are often used on exit and entrance ramps of interstate highways etc although easement curves are generally a better choice for these situations Degree of Circular Curve 0 The rate of curvature of circular curves can be designated either by their radius or by their degree of curve 0 Two diferrent designations for the degree of curve arc and chord

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