studysoup notes PSC2101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary O'Connor on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC2101 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Wiley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see Scope and Methods in PSC in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
12115 Logic 02102015 Conditional Statement If the then the if then statement If it then the streets are If people are then they Conditional Argument 1 Affirm the antecedent VALID it rains therefore the streets are wet people are hungry therefore they are rioting 0 It doesn t matter if the statement is true but if we believe both of them are true then it will always be true 2 affirm the consequent INVALID othe streets are wet therefore it rained people rioting therefore they are hungry 0 there may be other antecedents that lead to the consequence 3 deny the antecedent INVALID onot raining therefore the streets are not wet people are not hungry therefore they are not rioting 0 could be other antecedents that lead to that consequent 4 deny the consequent VALID the streets are not wet therefore it is not raining people are not rioting therefore they are not hungry o the consequent is not happening therefore neither is the antecedent Theories are gments of our imaginations Theory Deduce hypotheses to test pull out the expectations from our theory 0 If theory then empirical expectations 0 Find what we expected therefore theory Invalid 0 You are af rming the consequent which is an invalid argument 0 But you can say the theory was con rmed o If theory then empirical expectations 0 Don t nd what we expected therefore no theory valid 0 Denying the consequent so it is valid 0 Theory discon rmed Normal Science Revolutionary Science Deductive Reasoning Explanation Premises lead to the conclusion de nitely 0 Nothing in the conclusion that is not in the premises 0 All men are mortal Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal There is nothing in the conclusion that is not in the premises You have to nd one instance that negates the statement Inductive reasoning explanation Conclusion goes beyond the premise Conclusion is probabilistic o 60 of Hispanics in the sample support Obama therefore 60 of the hispanic population support Obama 0 probably valid 0 we would need a mass negative event to negate it Inductive Fallacies 1 Biased statistics 0 sample does not represent the population 2 Insuf cient statistics 0 sample or subsample is too small Concept An abstraction representing an object or phenomenon or a property of an object or phenomenon Used for 0 Communication 0 Present point of view 0 Means to classify 0 Components of theory Concept theoretical level abstract vcongruence Operationalization state rules for measuring empirical Direct observables 0 Can observe the color of people s hair all things that are directly observable Indirect observables 0 Can indirectly observe what happened in the Senate by going and reading about it Constructs 0 Democracy 0 Power 0 Political ef cacy A feeling that people have that cannot be seen 0 Pa le o Protest Before we can move from a conceptual level to a operational level we need a conceptual de nition 0 points out the attributes of the term not circular stated positively clear terms that mean the same to everyone Reportive de nition the standard meaning of the term webster s dictionary and look it up Stipulative de nition gives added meaning to the term absent vague or ambiguous Designation the de nition Denotation what the term is applicable to Connotation mental associations
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