New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro Zoology week 11 notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Intro Zoology week 11 notes BIOL 1114, 001

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Biology > BIOL 1114, 001 > Intro Zoology week 11 notes
Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

notes from lecture in week 11
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
introductory zoology
25 ?




Popular in Intro to zoology

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.


Reviews for Intro Zoology week 11 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/10/16
Week 11 zoo notes Body equipped to handle traditional, paleo diet Human diet is evolving­ How are we evolving as a species in this rapidly changing environment? Then: Meat, roots, fruit, other, low on vitamin D and calcium, burn calories to hunt and gather,  lean periods of little or no food Now: pesticides, growth hormones, antibiotics, high fats, processed, potential toxins, farmed More accessible sugars diabetes and obesity Foods may stress our pancreas = sugar everywhere, insulin production can’t keep up High blood glucose pancreas detects insulin released by beta cells in pancreas fat cells take  in glucose from blood achieve normal blood glucose levels  Also, glucagon released by alpha cells in pancreas liver releases glucose into blood  Blood glucose homeostasis via negative feedback loop Glucose insulin rollercoaster: insulin and glucose rise together, insulin doesn’t go back down  until glucose level goes down Too much sugar intake: pancreas has to produce excess amount of insulin and glucagon,  becomes tired and stressed, develop type II diabetes (can be reversed) Apply prior knowledge:  Organic molecules o Carbohydrates o Fats o Proteins  Cell membrane permeability o Lipophilic = hydrophobic = lipid soluble o Lipophobic = hydrophilic = water soluble  Hormones and hormone receptors are proteins o Dna  RNA  Protein 3 forms of stored energy: cellulose, starch, gylcogen Polysaccharides are essentially stored energy  Receptors relay information: Transport proteins, enzymes, etc Hormones: slow, lasting, communication   Electrical signals: relatively rapid, target single or neighboring cells, target cell  determined by contact points  Chemical signals: relatively long lasting, can target cells all over the body, targets  determined by presence/absence of receptors  Both: communicate and respond to info about the environment Pineal gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas  Endocrine glands secrete hormones  Hormones travel in the bloodstream  Alter the metabolism of one or more target cells Hormones interact with target cells, no effect if cell doesn’t have a receptor  Genes code for hormones and hormone receptors  Repeated exposure to unusually high levels of hormones can lead to desensitizationTarget cells  become less responsive (type II diabetes, reversible) (adult onset type I diabetes, nonreversible)  (not related to desensitization: type I diabetes, genetic, nonreversible) Hormones are water or lipid soluble: Water soluble hormones: Hormone circulates the bloodstream, hormone binds to receptor  protein, second messenger molecule activated and initiates a cell response, usually by activating  an enzyme, cells activity changes One hormone can have multiple effects, multiple second messenger molecules, multiple  enzymes present in cell Lipid soluble hormones: (steroid hormones) can pass straight through membrane, straight into  nucleus where receptor is located, when bound by a hormone, it activates transcription of a gene, leads to production of new proteins (slower response) Part 2: Digestion Ingestion: first encounter of food­ mouth (teeth and tongue) Types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, molars Epiglottis­ when swallowing, a “trap door” closes that prevents food from entering trachea rather than esophagus  When ingesting: food is carried down esophagus with smooth muscle contractions In the stomach  Churning: mechanical digestion  Enzymes and chemicals­ chemical digestion  Pepsin­ protein digesting enzyme  Other enzymes  Hydrochloric acid  Mucus  Salts  Water Digestion and absorption:  Villi and microvilli increase surface area of small intestine   Blood vessels along small intestine will absorb nutrients and deliver to body Voluntary and involuntary movements Can have some voluntary control over mouth, esophagus, and anus Liver­ produces bile, which emulsifies fat and breaks down (bile is not a digestive enzyme­ it’s  an acid) Gallbladder­ storage unit for bile Pancreas­ produce and release enzymes and bicarbonate Stomach, small intestine­ produce digestive enzymes Salivary glands­ in the mouth, begin the chemical breakdown of food Nucleic Acids­ nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Evolution: intracellular vs extracellular digestion Metabolic rates and size/weight affecting total energy needs Toxins and digestion: Apple seeds contain cyanide, brazil nut is most radioactive food, alcohol is toxic, etc. Liver= hero. Function is to break down toxins into substances the body can handle. Blood flow is directed so that it goes through the liver first, gets detoxified, then is carried out to body.  Things the liver cant break down: snake venom, spider venom, etc. these are immune responses  Trophic Exchange: Energy “lost” as it increases up the foodweb Biomagnification increases the amount of toxins as it goes up the food chain DDT­ decreased size of eagle eggs, estrogenated male alligators, so they were reproducing less  and population decreased significantly Mercury, methyl mercury­ neurotoxin, entire planet is polluted with elevated mercury levels­  some from volcanoes, mostly from power plants and other human sources Mercury methylation­ biomagnifies up food web, decreases reproductive success, alters behavior in animals,


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.