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HSC 160 Notes Week 12

by: Jennifer Miner

HSC 160 Notes Week 12 HSC 160

Marketplace > Ball State University > HSC 160 > HSC 160 Notes Week 12
Jennifer Miner
GPA 3.7

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These notes cover chapter 12, lecture content, and i clicker questions
Fundamentals of Human Health
Dr. Otiam
Class Notes
Fundamentals of Human Health
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 160 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Otiam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 04/10/16
HSC160 Week 12 Chapter 11 (Diabetes) & Chapter 12 Chapter 11 Review 9. Which of the following is true of type 2 diabetes? a. IT IS CORRELATED WITH OBSETITY AND SEDENTARY LIFE 10. By 2050, experts predict more than _______ Americans will have diabetes. a. 1 IN 3 Chapter 12 Quiz 1. Jennifer touched her viral herpes sore on her lip and then touched her eye. She ended up  with herpes virus in her eye. This is an example of  a. AUTOINOCULATION 2. Which of the following do NOT assist the body in fighting disease a. ANTIGENS  3. An example of passive immunity: a. THE ANTIBODY­CONTAINING PART OF THE VACCINE THAT CAME FROM SOMEONE ELSE 4. Which of the following is a viral disease: a. HEPATITIS 5. Because colds are always present to some degree throughout the world, they are said to  be: a. ENDEMIC 6. Which of the following diseases is caused by a prion? a. MAD COW DISEASE 7. Which of the following is a true statement about HIV? a. DRUGS CAN PROVIDE LONGER SURVIVAL RATES FOR HIV 8. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an: a. INFECTION OF A WOMAN’S FALLOPIAN TUBES OR UTERUS  9. The most widespread sexually transmitted bacterium is: a. CHLAMYDIA  10. Which of the following STI’s cannot be treated with antibiotics? a. HERPES ______________________________________________________________________________ 12.1 1. Multifactorial: most diseases are multifactorial / caused by interaction of several factors  inside and outside of person a. Occur if there is a virulent organism and susceptible host b. Bacteria/ viruses account for many common diseases (fungi, protozoans, parasitic  worms, and prions can infect a host too)  c. Protozoans: single­celled organisms, bigger than viruses and bacteria, that cause  disease d. Prion: a self­replicating, protein­based agent that can infect humans and animals  i. EX: Malaria  2. Process of Infection  a. Pathogens are ubiquitous in nature i. Can enter body through several routes of transmission: 1. Direct / indirect contact (or autoinoculation) b. Our bodies have barriers that prevent pathogens from entering body i. AVOID: 1. Direct/indirect contact with pathogens 2. Autoinoculation 3. Zoonotic disease from bites/feces of animals c. Risk Factors (that you can control): i. Controlling stress, getting good nutrition, adequate sleep, avoiding drug  use, practicing good hygiene, and reducing high­risk behaviors. d. Risk Factors (that you can’t control): i. Heredity, aging (younger than 5 or older than 65 are most vulnerable),  environmental conditions, organism virulence and resistance (how well  pathogen can cause disease)  3. Immune system: a. Immune system is able to recognize and destroy antigens, outside or foreign  substances capable of causing disease b. Immunity: a condition of being able to resist a particular disease by counteracting the substance  4. How immune system works: a. When an antigen (foreign organism) breaches body’s initial defenses, the body  responds by forming antibodies matched to that specific antigen i. Size, shape, foreign to the body 1. Antigen invades the body 2. Helper T cells recognize the invading antigens and trigger the  production of  killer T cells and B cells 3. Killer T cells destroy infected cells. B cells produce antibodies  that attach to antigens and mark them for destruction by  macrophages 4. When threat is over, suppressor T cells stop activity of B cells,  killer T cells, and macrophages. Memory B & T cells are reserved  so the body can respond quickly to future attacks by the same  antigens  b. Autoimmune Disease: i. When the immune system attacks itself ii. Inflammatory response, pain, fever, redness, swelling, pain, and heat 1. EX: type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, MS, celiac disease c. Vaccines: i. Help immunity through activation of T and B cells ii. The principle of vaccination is based on killed or weakened versions of a  disease causing microorganism or an antigen similar to but less dangerous  than the disease antigen 1. Artificially acquired actively immunity: vaccination 2. Naturally acquired actively immunity: exposure to an  antigen/disease 3. Naturally acquired passive immunity: mother – child 12­3 1. Bacteria: simple, single celled microscopic organisms (cocci, bacilli, spiral) 2. Antibiotics: potent drugs that fight and kill bacteria, although overuse and misuse has led to antibiotic resistance  3. Bacterial Infections: a. Staph: colonize on skin and nostrils of most humans without causing disease, but  act as carriers i. Breach in skin and lead to infection (acne, boils, sties, infections) b. Strep:  i. Group A: cause the most common diseases 1. Sore throat, scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome ii. Group B: cause illness in new born babies, pregnant women, older adults,  and those with DM (all cases of low immunity) 1. Strep pneumoniae: cases bacterial pneumonia, ear infections and  blood stream infection c. Meningitis: inflammation of membranes coving the brain and spinal cord d. Pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing  i. Most vulnerable: children, elderly, those exposed to chemicals  e. TB: second only to HIV/AIDS in prevelance of infections i. Chronic cough, fever, and night sweats f. Tick­borne bacterial diseases: i. Lyme Disease: lesions, fever, flu­like symptoms, and rash ii. Ehrlichiosis: flu­like symptoms with respiratory difficulties iii. Rocky mountain spotted fever: carried by a tick, high fever, rash,  weakness, coma iv. Typhus: caused by a louse, symptoms similar to RMSF 12­4 1) Viruses: the smallest known pathogens, 1/500  the size of bacteri  Invade and inject their own DNA and RNA in host cell, take over it and force it to make  copies of itself  Viral diseases are difficult ot treat because many can withstand heat, radiation, and  formaldehyde a) Hep A,B,C i. A: eating food/water contaminated with human feces ii. B: spread through body fluids iii. C: body fluids, blood transfusions (epidemic)


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