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Deductive and Inductive arguments

by: Carly Ott

Deductive and Inductive arguments 4482

Marketplace > Washington State University > 4482 > Deductive and Inductive arguments
Carly Ott
GPA 3.89
elementary logic
Nathaniel Nicol

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About this Document

Notes from taken during week 3.
elementary logic
Nathaniel Nicol
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Ott on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4482 at Washington State University taught by Nathaniel Nicol in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 02/10/15
Chapter 14 Deductive and Inductive Arguments comes to one conclusion general particular better argument generalization strength of argument hangs on sample size particular l general Ex This frog is green and so is this one so all frogs are green Deductive Argument Forms all or nothing kind of argument 1 Argument based on math 0 Generally deductive one exception is some statistics 0 Ex Pythagorean formula holds for all right triangles 2 Argument from de nition 0 A bachelor is an unmarried man etc 3 Categorical syllogism Go by the standard form 2 premises one conclusion categorical statements throughout All P and Q premise All Q are X premise So all P are X conclusion 4 Hypothetical syllogism Syllogism with a conditional 5 Disjunctive syllogism Syllogism with a disjunction Either S or D premise Not S premise Therefore it s D conclusion Inductive Argument Forms argument can ALWAYS be stronger or weaker 1 Prediction 0 Ex weather forecast 2 Argument from analogy Similarity of cases is crucial 3 Generalization From sample to whole This frog is green and so is this one so all frogs are green 4 Argument from authority 0 From testimony hearsay 5 Argument based on signs 0 Ex Slippery road ahead sign 6 Casual inference 0 But then post hoc ergo Deductive arguments are either valid or invalid then either sound or unsound Valid and invalid does not concern with the truth of the premises look at the form of the argument 0 The argument is sound is if it is valid and has true premises 0 So sound is dependent on the premises being true True premises means that the reasons are true facts that actually support the conclusion We could say an argument about unicorns and the argument could be valid but since unicorns do not exist the argument would be unsound o Argument can only be sound IF it is valid as well Inductive arguments are either strong or weak then either cogent or uncogent Similar to valid and invalid strong or weak has to do if the premises make the conclusion probable or very probable Cogent and uncogent are similar to sound or unsound o The argument is cogent if it is strong and has true premises 0 Remember argument can only be cogent if it is strong


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