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Biology 111 week for 4.7.16

by: Shayla Pedigo

Biology 111 week for 4.7.16 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

These are good for if you missed lecture or if you need a recap.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 11100, Bio
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
Bio notes for 4.7.16 Mineral Deficiency Most plant species respond to deficiencies in a predictable manner, aiding in diagnosis Deficiencies in nitrogen, phosphorous, & potassium most common Soil Management Plant yield on a single plot of land will decrease over time b/c plants remove nutrients Early human farmers discovered that adding nutrients to soil (fertilizing) made it a renewable resource The ability to grow food continuously in the same location allowed formation of the first human villages The ability to store food surplus enabled some people to specialize in non-farming occupations…the start of modern societies! Fertilization In natural ecosystems, nutrients are usually recycled by excretion of animal waste & decomposition of plant & animal matter close to where they were removed Our current agricultural system makes it possible for us to eat and excrete far from where our food is grown, so soil isn’t automatically renewed Fertilization: addition of mineral nutrients to soil Most farmers in industrialized nations use fertilizers that were either mined or created by energy-intensive processes Enriched in N, P, K, these fertilizers are usually available to plants all at once, and much is leached as runoff before plants can use them Soil Mismanagement A global problem affecting food availability More than 30% of world’s arable land has reduced productivity due to poor soil conditions a) chemical contamination b) mineral deficiency c) acidity d) salinity e) poor drainage Soil Ecosystem Based on hydroponic experiments, soil isn’t essential for plants to complete their life cycles Most terrestrial plants grow from soil, & through it acquire their water & mineral nutrients Healthy soil is a rich ecosystem Soil Texture Depends on size of soil particles, which arise from rock weathering; microscopic clay to coarse sand Topsoil: layer of soil from which plants acquire water & nutrients; composed of weathered rock particles & decomposing organic matter Water & air both found in soil pockets Loam: most fertile type of topsoil; composed of equal parts sand, silt, clay • enough small silt & clay particles to provide surface area for adhesion & retention of minerals & water • large spaces b/w sand grains allow efficient diffusion of O 2o roots • after heavy rain, water drains out of large soil pockets, but remains in small spaces b/c water molecules attracted to negatively-charged clay & other particles Sandy soils don’t usually retain enough water to support vigorous plant growth Clay soils tend to retain too much water; plant roots suffocate when soil doesn’t drain properly, b/c air in pockets is replaced w/ water The most fertile top soils have pockets that are about half air & half water, balancing aeration, drainage, & water storage capacity Topsoil- Mineral Components Most soil particles negatively charged, so negatively charged ions are most easily lost to leaching • Nitrate, NO - 3 3- • Phosphate, PO 4 2- • Sulfate, SO 4 These ions contain macronutrients, so their loss is a big deal Topsoil- Organic Components Humus- decaying animal waste, and animal, plant, fungus, and bacterial matter • Prevents clay particles from packing together • Forms crumbly soil that retains water but is still porous enough to adequately aerate roots • Increases soil’s capacity to donate cations to roots • Serves as reservoir of mineral nutrients that return gradually to soil as micro-organisms decompose the organic matter Topsoil- Living Components Living components- bacteria, fungi, algae, insects, earthworms, nematodes, plant roots • 1tsp has ~5 billion bacteria • organisms eat & excrete soil components, mixing & aerating simultaneously Plant roots • bind soil & reduce erosion • excrete acids & lower soil pH Plant Nutrition Plants don’t just take from the soil • decomposing plants provide most of nutrients for soil microorganisms • living root secretions support microorganisms in near-root environment Many examples of mutually symbiotic relationships b/w plants & others soil organisms Nutrition & Rhizobacteria Rhizobacteria: bacteria living in large populations in soil layer surrounding plants’ roots • species & pop. size depend on soil type • activity 10-100x higher in rhizosphere than outside, b/c plants secrete nutrients like sugars, amino acids, organic acids • plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance plant growth in many ways (growth factors, antibiotics, increasing nutrient availability) Nutrition & Bacteria in Nitrogen Cycle The forms of N that plants can use include ammonium ions (NH ) and nitrat4 ions - (NO 3, and are not derived from weathered rocks Most N available to plants comes from bacterial activity Ammonifying bacteria convert wastes into NH 4+ (ammonification) + - Nitrifying bacteria make N available by converting NH 4 to NO 3nitrification) - Most plants transport N from roots to shoots via xylem in the form of NO 3 Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Although Earth’s atmosphere is 79% nitrogen (N ), plants 2an’t use it in this form b/c the triple bonds Nitrogen fixation: converting atmospheric N 2 into NH 3 • only performed by nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria • after N 2onverted into + + NH 3 it picks up another H in soil to form NH , whic4 plants can use Plant Nutrition & Fungi Mycorrhizae: “fungus roots,” mutualistic fungi associated w/ plant roots • host plant provides fungus w/ sugar • fungus has more than one role: 1. increases surface area for water uptake 2. supplies plant w/ phosphorous & other minerals absorbed from soil 3. secretes growth factors that stimulate roots to grow & branch 4. secretes antibiotics that protect plant from infection (this is where we got penicillin!) Unusual Associations Most plants have mutualistic symbiotic associations w/ soil fungi and/or bacteria Some plants have interesting mutualisms for getting the nutrients they need Other plants have non-mutualistic associations for getting some of the nutrition they need “Carnivorous plants” is a misnomer- the plant gets SUGARS from photosynthesis, but MINERALS from animals, b/c it lives in poor soil


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