Week 13 Notes ANTH 102
Week 13 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
Week 13 Notes ANTH 102 st Notes are on every other page, excluding 1 page Egypt Earliest Farmers (4400-4000BC) o Mobile – live in tents/hunts o Storage pits lined with basketry o Emmer wheat, barley, cattle, goats, and sheep o Grinding stones Predynastic (5000-3100BC) o Isolated farming villages o Agriculture-based society o Social stratification appears o Local leaders controlled surplus and irrigation o Increase in power and ideology o Naqada Site: Agricultural community Dikes and drainage canals ~760-1520 people Walled town with cemeteries, houses; rectangular, mud-brick, elite residences Long distance trade (cylinder seal from Mesopotamia) o Nekhan (Hierankopolis) Site (3800BC): Small farming village (a few hundred people) 3500BC = population increase to 10500 people Social differentiation apparent in mud brick/plaster houses vs. larger houses for the wealthy; separate cemetery for elite o Predynastic Politics: 3500BC = 3 main powers were Naqada, Abydos, and Nekhen (Hierankopolis) Early tombs National character – beginning of national concepts of Egypt as location, kinship, and religion Appearance of stratification, planned streets (infrastructure), and proto-hieroglyphs Mastabas: burial structures for elites Single story underground tomb Basis for later pyramids Early Dynastic (3100-2575BC) o Unified state Harmony of opposites – chaos vs. order Unification as a metaphor; symbol of unity Preserve ma’at Normer Palette (3100BC) (Balance of Forces) o Pharaoh as divine king o Basic socio-political structure o Capital: Memphis o Prime minister, governments of districts (hereditary and based on merit) o Scribes are important o Rosetta Stone: The top is written in hieroglyphics, middle in demotic, and bottom in Greek; each says the same thing; used for translating o Hieroglyphs: Independent writing Began in Predynastic (3200BC) Images faster than script Functional and artistic Few were literate Used for religion (hieratic), business, legal, poetry, myths Logograms: signs of whole word Phonograms: sounds Determinatives: signs of exact meanings PAGE LEFT BLANK Carved into stone on monuments; written in ink on papyrus with reed from Nile banks Old Kingdom (2575-2134BC) o Capital: Memphis th o 4 Dynasties – 4 Dynasty Pyramid Age o Despotic Pharaohs: powerful, semi-divine kings o Social structure: heavily stratified, rulers (order over chaos) (sun god’s representative on Earth), priesthood important, common people as laborers o International trade – Lebanese cedar, Sinai turquoise/copper, Nubian ivory/gold/ soldiers o Rulership: Pharaoh controlled rain, people, gods, Nile flood; personification of ma’at Hereditary bureaucracy o Djoser: st rd 1 king of 3 Dynasty King as part of sun symbolism Step Pyramid at Saqqara (tomb) Djoser Complex: designed by Imhotep, several mastabas, part of large complex, function of pyramid (?) o Sneferu – attempted to build “true” pyramid 3 times o Giza Pyramids: 4 Dynasty Pharaohs (2613-2494BC) Khufu (Cheops), Kafre, and Menkaure st Khufu’s pyramid: 1 pyramid built; largest at 145m (474ft) high; originally encased in polished limestone; hidden burial chamber Khafree’s pyramid: 2 built; similar in size to Khufu’s; originally encased in polished limestone; sphynx is part of it Menkaure’s pyramid: 3 built; smallest (65m high); partly encased in polished granite; valley temple contained beautiful sculptures o Typical Pyramid Complex: Mortuary temple (royal cult?) PAGE LEFT BLANK Main and satellite Connected by causeway bridges Valley Temple – mummification Queen’s Pyramid o Pyramid Construction: Bureaucratic organization Artisans/laborers compensated with supplies/housing/food This all had to be organized Village for workers Labor used as a form of tax, and they only worked for a short time Food came from state surpluses Only the highly skilled stayed permanently People linked to king – lots of common people a part of construction Institutionalized the state Food-labor Depended on rations part of year Villages became interdependent o Eventually lost stability 1 Intermediate (2134-2040BC) o Powerful rulers felled by drought o Famines, anarchy o Disunity, decentralization o 7 -11 Dynasties Middle Kingdom (2040-1782BC) o Reunification, prosperity, peace, stability o International relations – other kingdoms growing o Less divine kingly power – connected to deities, but not entirely a deity o Leadership important – Pharaohs as bureaucrats o People had less automatic loyalty Assassinations o Capital: Thebes PAGE LEFT BLANK o Smaller pyramids but better goods Khufu (Great Pyramid): 230m base by 146m height Others a lot smaller Money goes more to infrastructure (roads, canals, etc.) Tomb construction still elaborate More portable art (jewelry) More wall inscriptions Nicest = elites (princesses) More thieves Anticipated with complex burial shafts Fake entrances, dummy rooms/tombs Relates to pharaoh as less divine o Summary: Fully-formed state Larger cities Strong bureaucracies Larger territory Heavy defenses on state borders (suspected enemies from Central and SW Asia), but not enough defense 2 Intermediate Period (1782-1570BC) o Conquered by foreigners – “Hyksos” rulers in Lower Egypt o Egyptians at Thebes – Upper Egypt o New ideas: more sophisticated bronze, horse-drawn war chariots, new military weapons Brought up to date with other empires o Eventually overthrown New Kingdom (1570-1069BC) o Reunification and expansion o More centralization o Capital: Memphis o Pharaoh as military leader PAGE LEFT BLANK Kings only quasi-divine King Tutankhamen o “Golden Age” Stable, wealthy Achievements in art, architecture, literature o Population of 3 million o The time that most people think of when referring to Ancient Egypt o Thebes and Cult of Amun: Religious site Karnak temple complex – huge! All pharaohs of New Kingdom added to it Burial structures shift More in/near Thebes (considered religious center) Valley of Kings Near Thebes Hidden, rock-cut tombs; guarded o Caverns of underworld Different theology and economics – use less people to build Still filled with amazing goods (for afterlife) Elites also followed burial trends “Quest for Eternity” Transcend death – eternal life 1. Preserve body: At first, mummification happened naturally because of the arid environment o Maintain remains – organs in jars, dummy limbs for missing parts 2. Build houses – tombs 3. Provide for afterlife – burial goods o Even provided with food to eat in afterlife (could starve and die again) Mummification very expensive PAGE LEFT BLANK Private tombs (elite) – filled with detailed scenes, inscriptions o Famous New Kingdom Egyptians: King Akhenatem King Tut Queen Hatshepsut Queen Nefertiti o Late New Kingdom: Expansion attempts Battle of Kadesh failure Weakening pharaohs Strong foreign states Economic problems State shrinks Egypt after New Kingdom o 3 Intermediate Period (1069-656BC) Decentralized and foreign intervention Unbroken 3000-year succession of pharaohs ended when Alexander the Great appointed one of his generals as ruler Political weakness Decentralized rule Control by foreign rulers – Nubia and Libya o Late Period (656-332BC) “Last Gasp” of Pharaonic rule Invaded by Assyrians, then Persians, then regained independence Invaded again by Persians, then Alexander the Great (332BC) Incorporated into Greek Empire (30BC) Greeks adopted Egyptian gods and words Daily Life o Life expectancy = 30 (commoner) or 60 (elite) o Nuclear family – lineage through mom and dad o Marriage for social, property, alliances PAGE LEFT BLANK Divorce possible o Children valued equally o Equal rights for women (marital, legal, economic) o Cities, towns, villages; house and palace o Indoor = meetings, sleeping o Outdoor = cooking, activities Egypt not isolated
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