New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

chapter 12 notes for final exam

by: Hannah Mitchell

chapter 12 notes for final exam MGMT 301

Marketplace > Washington State University > Business, management > MGMT 301 > chapter 12 notes for final exam
Hannah Mitchell

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

these notes cover chapter 12 of management 301
Principles of Management and Organization
Dr. Leah Sheppard
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Management and Organization

Popular in Business, management

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Mitchell on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 301 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Leah Sheppard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management and Organization in Business, management at Washington State University.

Similar to MGMT 301 at WSU

Popular in Business, management


Reviews for chapter 12 notes for final exam


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/10/16
CHAPTER 12 CONTINUED Work attitudes – job satisfaction  Job satisfaction: an individual’s general attitude toward his or her work  The biggest predictor of job satisfaction is the work itself – people generally prefer interesting and challenging work over routine work  Personality also predicts job satisfaction – happier people enjoy their work better  Pay does correlate positively with job and life satisfaction, but after a certain level it levels off (after $75,000 a year we see no increase in happiness or reduction in stress, sadness) -why is this? More money, more problems! Increase in stress, etc. Higher Job satisfaction 1. Singers 2. Municipal firefighters 3. Aircraft assemblers 4. Pediatricians – general 5. College professors – communication 6. Educational and vocational counselors 7. Managers of animal husbandry/animal care workers Low Job satisfaction 1. Mail clerk and mail machine operators 2. Program directors 3. Municipal clerks 4. House cleaners 5. Insurance policy processing clerks Work Attitudes – Organizational Commitment  Organizational commitment: a state in which an employee identifies with the organization and its goals, and desires to stay in the organization -affective: I want to stay -normative: I should stay -continuance: I have to stay  Affective predicts the best outcomes in terms of engagement and performance Emotions  Emotions: strong feeling directed toward something or someone  Emotional labor or emotional work: job requires employees to display certain emotions and suppress others, in accordance with organizational display rules -flight attendants -customer service workers -food services -nurses and doctors -teachers  Emotional labors leads to: burnout, emotional exhaustion, turnover Stress  Stress: state of tension caused by demands, constraints, or opportunities  Stressor: anything that causes stress  Constructive stress: encourages increased effort, stimulates creativity, enhances persistence  Destructive stress: impairs performance, brings on burnout (mental exhaustion)  Stress can kill. I reduces resistance to disease Work Stressors  34% of workers in one survey said their jobs were stressful enough to make them consider quitting  biggest work stressors: -unclear roles/tasks -interpersonal problems -too much responsibility -too little control CHAPTER 13 Basics of motivation  the process that accounts for intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal -intensity: how hard a person tries -direction: where effort is channeled -persistence: how long effort is maintained  effort and performance: job performance = motivation x ability x situational constraints  need satisfaction: people are motivated by unmet needs  types: lower-order needs and higher-order needs basics of motivation: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  physiological: food, water, oxygen, shelter  safety: security of resources, health  belongingness: intimacy friendship, love  esteem: independence, achievement, status  self-actualization: meaning, creativity, challenge how might organizations use this theory?  Make sure that employees have their lower level needs met first  Then work on providing opportunities for mastery and further development (“satisfiers”) Two major types of rewards that drive motivation  Extrinsic reward: tangible  Intrinsic reward: intangible What is the effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation?  It’s complicated to apply to the workplace!  Sometimes it reduces intrinsic motivation  Extrinsic reward signals competence = good  Extrinsic reward signals control = might be bad  It also depends on personality. If you have internal locus of control, you might prefer pay-for-performance systems Equity system  Fact: in 2010 the average CEO was paid 343 times what the average employee was paid  Equity theory: we all want to be treated fairly, both in an absolute sense and relative to others  People will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly  Components -inputs -outcomes -referents -outcome/input ratio -under reward -over reward  Inputs: qualifications, effort, education, special skills, loyalty, positive attitudes  Outputs: pay, benefits, job security, promotion, autonomy (anything of value to that person)  Referents: the people we compare ourselves to  We’re constantly striving for balance -under reward: ask for more, switch referents, rationalize, withdraw effort, sabotage -over reward: experience guilt and increase effort, switch referents, rationalize Equity sensitivity  People have different preferences for equity or fairness -Benevolents: more likely to accept under-reward and feel uncomfortable with over-reward -Sensitives: have a preference for equity -Entitleds: have a desire to be over-rewarded Motivating with equity theory  Increase outputs where possible, decrease inputs when increasing outputs is not an option -Make sure decision-making processes are fair  Ensuring decision making processes are fair -distributive justice: perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed -procedural justice: perceived fairness of the procedures used to make reward allocation decisions -interactional justice: perceived fairness in how decisions are communicated to employees Expectancy theory  People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe: -their efforts will lead to good performance (expectancy) -good performance will be rewarded (instrumentality) -they care about those particular rewards (valence)  Motivation = valence x expectancy x instrumentality Motivating with expectancy theory  Systematically gather info to find out what employees want fro their jobs  Some people might not want advancement or might be embarrassed by public recognition  Take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance  Empower employees to make decisions so that they feel capable (effort performance) Reinforcement theory  Behavior is a function of its consequences  Behavior followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently  Behavior followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently  4 components: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction  positive reinforcement: behavior  reward  negative reinforcement: behavior  removal of something unpleasant  punishment: behavior  punishment  extinction: behavior  removal of something pleasant schedules for delivering reinforcement  reinforcement contingencies: -continuous reinforcement: behavior always leads to outcome, use during training -intermittent reinforcement: behavior leads to outcome on variable basis


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.