chapter 12 notes for final exam
chapter 12 notes for final exam MGMT 301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Mitchell on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 301 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Leah Sheppard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management and Organization in Business, management at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
CHAPTER 12 CONTINUED Work attitudes – job satisfaction Job satisfaction: an individual’s general attitude toward his or her work The biggest predictor of job satisfaction is the work itself – people generally prefer interesting and challenging work over routine work Personality also predicts job satisfaction – happier people enjoy their work better Pay does correlate positively with job and life satisfaction, but after a certain level it levels off (after $75,000 a year we see no increase in happiness or reduction in stress, sadness) -why is this? More money, more problems! Increase in stress, etc. Higher Job satisfaction 1. Singers 2. Municipal firefighters 3. Aircraft assemblers 4. Pediatricians – general 5. College professors – communication 6. Educational and vocational counselors 7. Managers of animal husbandry/animal care workers Low Job satisfaction 1. Mail clerk and mail machine operators 2. Program directors 3. Municipal clerks 4. House cleaners 5. Insurance policy processing clerks Work Attitudes – Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment: a state in which an employee identifies with the organization and its goals, and desires to stay in the organization -affective: I want to stay -normative: I should stay -continuance: I have to stay Affective predicts the best outcomes in terms of engagement and performance Emotions Emotions: strong feeling directed toward something or someone Emotional labor or emotional work: job requires employees to display certain emotions and suppress others, in accordance with organizational display rules -flight attendants -customer service workers -food services -nurses and doctors -teachers Emotional labors leads to: burnout, emotional exhaustion, turnover Stress Stress: state of tension caused by demands, constraints, or opportunities Stressor: anything that causes stress Constructive stress: encourages increased effort, stimulates creativity, enhances persistence Destructive stress: impairs performance, brings on burnout (mental exhaustion) Stress can kill. I reduces resistance to disease Work Stressors 34% of workers in one survey said their jobs were stressful enough to make them consider quitting biggest work stressors: -unclear roles/tasks -interpersonal problems -too much responsibility -too little control CHAPTER 13 Basics of motivation the process that accounts for intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal -intensity: how hard a person tries -direction: where effort is channeled -persistence: how long effort is maintained effort and performance: job performance = motivation x ability x situational constraints need satisfaction: people are motivated by unmet needs types: lower-order needs and higher-order needs basics of motivation: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs physiological: food, water, oxygen, shelter safety: security of resources, health belongingness: intimacy friendship, love esteem: independence, achievement, status self-actualization: meaning, creativity, challenge how might organizations use this theory? Make sure that employees have their lower level needs met first Then work on providing opportunities for mastery and further development (“satisfiers”) Two major types of rewards that drive motivation Extrinsic reward: tangible Intrinsic reward: intangible What is the effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation? It’s complicated to apply to the workplace! Sometimes it reduces intrinsic motivation Extrinsic reward signals competence = good Extrinsic reward signals control = might be bad It also depends on personality. If you have internal locus of control, you might prefer pay-for-performance systems Equity system Fact: in 2010 the average CEO was paid 343 times what the average employee was paid Equity theory: we all want to be treated fairly, both in an absolute sense and relative to others People will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly Components -inputs -outcomes -referents -outcome/input ratio -under reward -over reward Inputs: qualifications, effort, education, special skills, loyalty, positive attitudes Outputs: pay, benefits, job security, promotion, autonomy (anything of value to that person) Referents: the people we compare ourselves to We’re constantly striving for balance -under reward: ask for more, switch referents, rationalize, withdraw effort, sabotage -over reward: experience guilt and increase effort, switch referents, rationalize Equity sensitivity People have different preferences for equity or fairness -Benevolents: more likely to accept under-reward and feel uncomfortable with over-reward -Sensitives: have a preference for equity -Entitleds: have a desire to be over-rewarded Motivating with equity theory Increase outputs where possible, decrease inputs when increasing outputs is not an option -Make sure decision-making processes are fair Ensuring decision making processes are fair -distributive justice: perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed -procedural justice: perceived fairness of the procedures used to make reward allocation decisions -interactional justice: perceived fairness in how decisions are communicated to employees Expectancy theory People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe: -their efforts will lead to good performance (expectancy) -good performance will be rewarded (instrumentality) -they care about those particular rewards (valence) Motivation = valence x expectancy x instrumentality Motivating with expectancy theory Systematically gather info to find out what employees want fro their jobs Some people might not want advancement or might be embarrassed by public recognition Take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance Empower employees to make decisions so that they feel capable (effort performance) Reinforcement theory Behavior is a function of its consequences Behavior followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently Behavior followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently 4 components: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction positive reinforcement: behavior reward negative reinforcement: behavior removal of something unpleasant punishment: behavior punishment extinction: behavior removal of something pleasant schedules for delivering reinforcement reinforcement contingencies: -continuous reinforcement: behavior always leads to outcome, use during training -intermittent reinforcement: behavior leads to outcome on variable basis