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HSTAA 212 Week 2

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

HSTAA 212 Week 2 Hstaa 212

Nicole Goodfliesh
GPA 3.7

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These notes cover the whole second week: lecture 3 and 4.
Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Class Notes
military history, HSTAA212, HSTAA, UW
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
4/4/2016   WEEK  2   Lecture  #3   Week  2:  (slides)  PART  1:  The  Early  Colonial  Wars   Keywords   •   Northwest  gun   •   The  Yamasee  War   •   Battle  of  Quebec  (1759)   •   Initiative   •   Braddock’s  defeat   •   Pontiac’s  Rebellion   •   Dual-­‐Army  Tradition   •   Washington’s  Strategy   •   Battle  of  Cowpens       Places     •   Louisburg  (Cape  Breton  Is.)   •   Cartagena   •   Ohio  River  Valley   •   St.  Lawrence  River     •   Quebec     Concepts   •   Tension  between  colonials  and  British  gov.   •   Realignment  of  enemies  and  allies   •   Tension  in  the  “dual  army”  tradition     Paper  #  1   •   Read  McPherson  (all)  and  Horowitz  (specific  pages)   •   Prompt   •   Argumentative  Essay  of  750  words   •   Good,  solid  writing/prose   •   Citations  example:  (Horowitz,  85)     PART  1:  The  Early  Colonial  Wars     North  America,  Spanish,  French,  and  British  Territories  circa  1700:     •   The  French  claim  lots  of  territory  but  there  aren’t  really  many  of  them  in  there.  They   only  really  have  two  settlements  at  this  point.   •   New  Spain:  much  of  central  and  south  America  as  well     America  in  a  Global  Context     •   Population  by  1700:   o   English  (234,000  not  including  slaves)   §   Far  more  colonists  in  the  English  colonies  than  the  French  do   o   French  (15,000)   o   Spanish   o   Native  Peoples   §   Take  part  in  the  conflicts  as  well  and  native  allies  are  particularly   important  for  the  wars  we  are  going  to  talk  about     The  Fur  Trade   •   Conflict  between  English  and  French  is  over  Beaver  Skins     •   Mercantilist  economy   •   European  and  Chinese  fashion   o   Beaver  fur  is  used  to  make  hats   •   Global  conflict   •   Reliance  on  Natives   o   Natives  are  the  ones  doing  the  trapping  and  killing  and  skinning     Indian  Labor   •   Put  greater  pressure  on  beavers  by  trapping  them  for  the  English/French  to  make  hats   •   Had  to  push  further  inland  to  look  for  more  beavers,  which  meant  they  pushed  into   other  tribes  which  caused  wars.  These  wars  were  called  ‘Beaver  Wars.’     Native  Traders   •   North:  Beaver  Skin   •   South:  Deer  Skin,  Indian  Slaves   •   Native  people  that  did  the  trading  with  the  Europeans  were  very  good  at  it   •   Native  trade  routes  had  existed  a  long  long  time   •   Natives  had  been  trading  long  before  Europeans  got  there   o   Extensive  trade  routes   o   Trading  skills   •   Played  Europeans  off  of  one  another   o   See  who  would  give  them  more  for  what  they  had     Shrewd  Traders   •   Northwest  Gun   o   Teaches  us  something  about  history:  Europeans  did  not  only  affect  North   America.  What  native  people  were  doing  here  also  went  back  to  Europe   o   Called  Northwest  gun  because  in  the  NW  was  where  the  gun  was  mainly  being   traded  in  the  beginning   o   A  flintlock  smoothbore  musket  that  was  produced  in  Europe  by  a  company  that   put  a  brass  serpent  on  the  gun  (serpent  became  attached  to  a  quality  firearm)   o   They  began  to  trade  guns  that  only  had  Serpents  on  them  because  the  Natives   associated  the  serpent  with  a  good  gun   o   Pretty  soon,  all  gun  makers  were  putting  serpents  on  their  gun   o   Commonly  traded  by  the  eastern  great  lakes   o   Well  made  gun   o   Example  of  Indians  playing  Europeans  against  each  other  in  order  to  receive  the   best  quality  gun   o   Lesson:  Indians  were  not  only  dependent  of  Europeans  but  in  many  ways,   Europeans  were  equally  dependent  on  Native  People   •   Indians  playing  Europeans  against  one  another   •   “Dual  dependency”     Series  of  Feeble  Colonial  Attempts  to  Weaken  New  France   •   Attempts  to  weaken  their  power   •   Didn’t  really  work  because:   o   Most  of  the  colonies  are  not  united  (except  New  England)   o   British  aren’t  that  interested   •   Served  to  connect  British  forces  and  colonial  militias     •   1690:  aborted  plan  to  capture  Montreal  and  defeat  Quebec   •   1709:  2  Failed  Attempt   rd •   1711:  3  Failed  attempt   •   New  intercolonial  cooperation   o   Important  for  the  colonials  to  revolt  against  Brittan     •   Increasing  distrust  between  England  and  colonies     Compare  what’s  going  on  in  Europe  to  what’s  going  on  in  North  America:     Europe   North  America   •   War  of  the  League  of  Augsburg  (1688-­‐ •   King  William’s  War  (1689-­‐1697)   1697)   •   Queen  Anne’s  War  (1701-­‐1713)   •   War  of  Spanish  Succession  (1701-­‐1714)   •   Yamasee  War  (1715-­‐1717)   •   Treaty  of  Utrecht   •   King  George’s  War  (1744-­‐1748)   •   War  of  Austrian  Succession  (1740-­‐1748)   •   Ohio  County  Skirmishes  (1754-­‐1756)   •   Seven  Years  War  (1756-­‐1763)   •   French  &  Indian  War  (1756-­‐1763)       1711:  Queen  Anne’s  War:  Sir  Hovenden  Walker  Expedition  to  Capture  Montreal   •   12,000  regular  troops  and  NE  militia   •   Ships  ran  aground  killing  more  than  900   •   British  government  sends  an  admiral  (sir  W)  to  try  and  capture  Montreal   o   Early  example  of  when  the  British  decide  they  want  to  invest  a  little  bit  of  $     •   Wanted  to  weaken  the  French  position  once  and  for  all   •   They  knew  the  French  had  few  people   •   They  send  a  squadron  under  the  Admiral  but  the  British  didn’t  understand  the  American   Context  and  didn’t  have  good  maps.  They  weren’t  ready  for  what  would  happen  when   they  would  get  to  the  Appalachians.     •   Expedition  is  over  when  they  get  killed  and  they  go  back     Seeds  of  Revolt   •   The  colonists  “will  grow  everyday  more  stiff  and  disobedient,  more  burthensome[sic]   than  advantageous  to  Great  Britain.”  (British  Army  Colonel  c.  1711)   o   Suddenly  the  British  don’t  look  so  tough  and  the  Colonials  gain  confidence     Yamasee  War   •   In  the  colonies  (S  Carolina)   •   Native  group  (Yamasees)   o   Long  time  allies  of  VA     •   Increasingly  indebted  to  British  traders   •   Natives  in  that  area  spent  generations  raiding  other  native  groups  for  slaves  that  were   then  taken  to  the  coast  and  shipped  off  to  the  Caribbean   •   Finally,  growing  debt  and  encroachments,  the  Yamasees  decide  to  attack  the  British   Colony  South  Carolina   •   Coordinated  attack   •   They  were  very  successful  at  almost  getting  rid  of  the  British   •   Important  because  it  shows  the  natives  group  together  trying  to  fight  the  British   •   Important  because  VA  comes  to  aid  S  Carolina  and  it  shows  intercolonial  connectedness   and  they  are  starting  to  cooperate   •   VA  and  SC  put  a  stop  to  the  attacks     Tense  Colonial  Relations   •   Cartagena  (1740)   o   3600  men  “American  Regiment”   o   Spanish  occupation  of  what  is  Colombia  today   o   The  British  wanted  to  capture  the  fort   o   Asked  the  colonials  to  give  up  militiamen  which  they  do  and  they  form  the   “American  Regiment”   o   Want  to  take  Cartagena  as  part  of  the  British  Empire   o   When  people  get  sick  on  the  ships,  it  spreads  really  quickly;  they  get  scurvy     •   Louisburg  fort  (1745)                                   o   Similar  to  what  happened  in  Cartagena   o   New  England  militiamen  team  up  with  the  British   o   3000  MA,  500  CT,  450  NH  militia  commanded  by  Wm.  Pepperell   o   Final  straw  is  the  attack  on  Louisburg   o   Colonials  do  great:   §   Mission:  land,  move  overland  and  capture  a  battery  (series  of  cannons)   o   The  fort  was  very  poorly  defended   §   Some  batteries  weren’t  even  manned   o   British  captured  the  fort  from  the  French   Tense  Relations   •   British  officers  report  that  the  colonials  are:   o   Drunken,  poorly  disciplines   o   Rude,  insulting  British  regulars   •   The  Colonials  are  gaining  confidence  at  the  same  time  they  are  being  insulted     Colonial  Relations   •   At  end  of  King  George’s  war,  they  give  fort  Louisbourg  back  to  the  French   •   Treaty  of  La  Chapelle  ends  the  war       Colonial  Cultural  Changes   •   Add  to  sense  of  individual   •   Challenge  the  British     Great  Awakening  (1730s-­‐1740s)   •   George  Whitfield   o   Picks  it  up  and  makes  preaching  a  profession   o   Goes  to  countryside  and  talks  to  as  many  people  as  he  can   •   Religion  starts  to  change  in  the  colonies   •   What  had  been  the  ‘church  of  England’  gets  a  challenge  from  these  new  preachers  who   are  challenging  parishioners  to  go  through  a  conversion  experience  and  find  god  their   own  way  (which  is  radical  at  this  time)   •   Revivals,  emotional  sermons,  “conversions”   •   Challenged  established  ecclesiastical  authority  (Anglican  Church)   o   Challenges  those  in  power   o   Creates  a  sense  of  individuality   §   You  can  find  God  yourself  through  conversions     Enlightenment     •   Deists   o   Guys  who  would  think  of  themselves  as  “thinkers”  first   •   Emphasized  rationality  and  science,  empiricism  (study  of  data/evidence  to  prove  things)   •   Foster  Individuality,  independence   •   Doesn’t  give  credence  to  monarchs   •   Think  critically  about  religion   •   Challenges  Brittan  because  colonials  have  ideas  about  individuality     Summary   •   Natives  as  political,  military  allies   •   Global  context   •   Decline  of  British  relations  with  the  North  American  colonies   •   Cultural  influences:  religion,  independence     PART  2:  Seven  Years  War/  French  &  Indian  War  (1756-­‐1763)     French  dominance  in  the  Ohio  Valley  (1750s)   •   River  valley  mattered  a  lot  in  this  period  because  the  people  that  were  coming  were   farmers  and  the  ORV  had  great  land  to  farm  so  they  English  wanted  it   o   Also  good  for  beaver  hunting   •   English  and  French  both  want  it  but  French  Dominate     French  Initiative   •   Initiative     o   To  be  proactive  and  take  action  in  advanced   o   On  the  offense  and  the  other  side  has  to  react  to  you   •   French  start  putting  up  forts  and  making  Indian  alliances  and  putting  people  in  there   •   Sent  many  troops  to  the  Ohio  Valley   •   Strengthen  relations  with  Indians  North  and  South   •   Defended  Louisbourg  better  than  they  had  before     MAJ  Washington’s  Ohio  Valley  Expedition  (1754)   •   In  response  to  this  (section  above),  the  British  and  colonies  start  to  worry  about  French   initiative  and  they  send  George  Washington  out  to  try  to  find  and  build  a  fort  at  the  fort   of  those  rivers  to  bolster  British  Presence   •   Forks  of  the  Ohio  (Allegheny  &  Monongahela  Rivers)   •   French  Ft.  Duquesne   o   Washington  realizes  that  the  French  had  already  built  a  fort  there   •   Defeat  &  Surrender   o   Put  up  a  small  fight  but  eventually  had  to  surrender  and  had  to  sign  a  paper  that   they  had  caused  the  death  of  a  French  emissary  by  dropping  an  axe  on  them   §   The  French  later  use  this  to  justify  going  to  war   •   By  going  out  there,  he  now  has  experience  with  what  the  Ohio  river  valley  is  like       Albany  Conference  (1754)   •   Officials  come  together  to  figure  out  what  they  want  to  do  about  the  French     Gen.  Braddock:  American  Colonials  were  “totally  ignorant  of  military  affairs”   •   General  Braddock   o   Thinks  the  colonials  should  obey  him  like  royal  subjects   o   Thinks  they  are  ignorant  of  military  affairs   o   No  experience  in  the  American  context   o   Thinks  he  doesn’t  need  native  allies   §   Gets  offers  and  turns  them  down   o   Takes  troops  out  to  get  Ft.  Duquesne  but  he  doesn’t  take  advice  from  people   who  have  been  there;  he  doesn’t  know  the  terrain   •   Colonel  Washington   o   Promoted  to  Major     Braddock’s  Defeat  (1755)   •   Battle  of  the  Monongahela   o   Braddock’s  force  breaks  down  and  he  is  shot  from  a  horse  and  killed   o   British  flee  back  to  the  coast   o   Classic  example:  pay  attention  to  advice,  experience,  terrain     Early  part  of  War   •   French  take  initiative  and  win  many  of  the  early  wars     French  Success   •   Ft.  Oswego  (1756)   o   Capture  fort  near  Lake  Ontario   •   Ft.  William  Henry  (1757)   o   Capture  fort  near  the  Hudson  river  valley   •   Regular  and  irregular  forces   o   French  engage  in  both  standard  European  and  native  tactics   o   Have  lots  of  native  people  there     o   Create  skirmishes  in  the  woods   o   Guerilla  tactics   o   Building  trenches,  siege  works,  using  cannons/mortars     th Mid-­‐28  C.  Artillery  (used  by  French  and  British)   •   Mortar     o   Very  high  trajectory   §   Shoot  over  walls   o   Can  use  many  different  projectiles   §   Can  use  bombs  that  can  be  timed  to  explode   o   Can  cause  fire   o   Used  grapeshot  and  canister  shot   §   Basically  turned  them  into  big  shot  guns   •   Shot  tons  of  little  shards  at  once   •   Howitzer   o   Designed  by  Prussian  military  engineers   o   Used  to  blast  walls/  gates  but  can  also  be  used  against  troops   o   Not  rifled  until  the  Civil  war     Shifting  British  Strategy   •   From  continental  to  colonial  and  maritime  focus   o   After  British  Defeats   •   Smoothing  relations  with  colonials   •   Lord  Louden  replaces  Braddock  and  is  equally  contemptuous  of  the  colonials,  so  they   putt  William  Pitt  in  charge   •   William  Pitt  (1757)   o   Realizes  he  would  get  nowhere  by  ordering  colonials  around   §   Asked  them  to  fight,  not  just  tell  them   o   Soothes  relations  with  colonials   o   Switched  British  focus  from  Europe  to  North  America   §   Changed  relationship  with  Colonials   §   Changed  tide  of  war  and  eventually  the  outcome     Privateering  and  Strategy   •   British  Navy  start  to  switch  to  the  strategy  of  Privateering   •   Privateers   o   Compare  to  pirates   §   Like  a  pirate  but  have  a  document  signed  by  the  King/Queen  of  England   so  they  are  allowed  to  go  raid  merchant  ships  of  the  enemy   §   Might  engage  the  French  navy,  but  probably  notà  mostly  going  after   merchant  ships  to  take  beaver  fur,  ambergris,  etc.   o   Sanctioned  by  the  Crown   o   Anticipates  US  navy  in  the  revolution   o   Independence  and  emerging  capitalism     British  Victory   •   Battle  of  Quebec  (1759)   o   European-­‐styled  battle   •   Once  the  British  changed  the  policies  and  make  better  relations  with  the  colonials,  they   begin  to  have  more  success   •   How  the  war  comes  to  the  end  is  at  the  Battle  of  Quebec   o   Totally  European  style  with  the  long,  marching  lines  firing  volleys  at  each  other   §   British  are  victorious   §   Defeat  the  French  at  Quebec   o   Had  a  siege  of  Quebec  but  they  were  too  well  supplied   o   Troops  scaled  the  cliffs  and  got  up  behind  the  city   o   French  realize  the  British  were  there  and  troops  were  sent  to  fight       Treaty  of  Paris   •   Ends  the  7yrs  war  (French  &  Indian  War)   •   Consequential  for  what  leads  to  the  American  Revolution   •   British  gained:   o   Almost  all  French  territories   o   French  Canada  becomes  British  Canada   •   France  lost  nearly  all  territories-­‐  ceded  east  of  the  Mississippi  River  to  Britain  and  west   to  Spain   •   Proclamation  Line  of  1763   o   Important  for  understanding  why  the  colonials  revolt   §   British  people  would  stay  on  their  side  and  the  natives  would  stay  on   theirs   •   Created  tension  between  the  British  and  Colonials   •   War  Debt/  Taxes   o   Enormous   o   British  ask  Colonials  to  pay  for  this   o   Colonials  didn’t  pay  taxes  so  no  one  knew  who  would  pay  for  the  war   •   Conquest  &  Administration   o   Conquering:   §   Far  easier  than  administration   o   Administering:   §   Problematic     o   Quartering  Troops   §   Problem  from  there  on  out   §   Amendment  came  from  this   §   British  forced  families  to  take  in  soldiers     Outcomes   •   Regular  army-­‐colonial  militia  conflict   o   Growing  militia  conflict  that  only  gets  worse   o   Episodes  like  Braddock’s  defeat,  Ft.  Louisburg  add  to  the  tension   •   Colonials  overstating  their  victories;  British  regulars  had  won  the  war   o   British  regulars  who  took  the  brunt  of  the  fighting  and  won  the  war   •   British  Treaties  with  Native  Americans   o   Anticipate  once  the  revolution  kicks  off,  the  Native  People  want  the  British  to   win   •   Setting  the  stage  for  colonial  revolt     4/6/2016       Lecture  #4     Historical  Significance  Exercise  (How  to  get  full  points)   •   C  answer:  The  Basics:  Who?  What?  When?  Where?     •   B  answer:  Includes  C  answer.  Connect  to  other  historical  events  at  the  time   o   Avoid  connections  over  large  amounts  of  time,  current  events   o   Ex.  European  armies  were  not  building  strongholds  at  the  time  that  the  Colonies/   Natives  were   •   A  answer:  Includes  C  and  B  answer.  So  what?  Who  cares?  What  is  the  historical   significance  for  us?   o   Avoid  truisms,  maxims,  large  life  lessons   o   Ex.  Stronghold  concept  shows  us  that  Europeans  did  not  simply  take  over  in   North  America,  but  were  so  weak  initially  that  they  had  to  rely  on  a  weak,   problematic  military  strategy     Week  2:  (slides)  PART  3:  Colonial  Revolution     After  the  French  Leave   •   Natives  worry  about  Colonial  encroachment   •   By  the  end  of  the  French/Indian  war,  the  French  were  giving  more  gifts  to  the  Indians   than  they  were  getting,  and  when  they  left,  the  Indians  expected  the  same  thing  from   the  British   o   They  found  it  too  expensive  and  didn’t  want  to  pay  out  the  gifts   o   Pontiac’s  rebellion  ensues     1763  Pontiac’s  Rebellion   •   Pontiac  (Ottawa  Leader)   o   Convinced  natives  to  band  together  to  fight  encroachment   •   Don’t  see  that  their  interests  were  taken  into  account  with  the  Treaty  of  Paris   •   Attack  British  outposts  in  the  West   •   1765:  British  established  treaties  with  bands  in  rebellion   o   Try  to  better  enforce  the  proclamation  line  try  to  keep  Colonials  from  going  into   the  Ohio  River  Valley;  weakly  enforced     Ottawa  Chief  Pontiac  (1766)     Sons  of  Liberty  and  The  Stamp  Act  (1765)   •   Stamp  Act   o   Anything  that  was  being  sold  would  get  a  stamp  on  it,  and  you  would  have  to  pay   the  tax   o   Created  animosity  among  the  colonials  and  was  banished  after  a  year   o   Declaratory  act  ensued  from  this:  Said  the  British  could  do  what  they  want     •   Sons  of  Liberty     o   Mob  Violence   o   Propaganda     “Freedom”  and  “Slavery”   •   Upper  political  class  who  organize  and  talk  about  the  ideas  of  revolution   o   Not  doing  what  the  British  say   o   Irritation  of  having  soldiers  quartered  in  their  homes   o   Turned  discussions  into  propaganda   o   In  some  cases:  mob  violence  against  Tax  collectors/  soldiers,  etc.   •   Who  was  “free”?  What  was  “freedom”?   o   At  the  time,  freedom  meant:  economically  free;  meant  men,  landowners,  those   with  enough  means   •   Only  these  economically  independent  were  “free.”   •   80%  of  the  people  in  England  and  the  colonies  were  unfree.   o   Women,  children,  tenants,  debtors…non-­‐property  owners   o   Liberalism  and  the  Enlightenment   §   Liberalism  is  the  political  philosophy  within  which  we  argue  politics   §   New  political  philosophy  that  was  directly  against  the  monarchies  of   Europe   •   Individuality,  Independence     John  Adams   •   “The  revolution  was  in  the  minds  and  hearts  of  the  people,  and  in  the  union  of  the   colonies…  before  hostilities  commenced.”   •   Already  a  sense  that  people  were  upset;  nevertheless,  they  still  saw  themselves  as   Englishmen     1775  Lexington  and  Concord:  the  militia   •   As  the  number  of  British  troops  had  grown  in  the  colonies,  many  British  troops   quartering  in  people’s  homes  in/around  Boston.  They  heard  about  more  stockpiles  of   weapons,  secret  meetings  of  militias.  One  morning  the  British  army  went  out  to  seize   weapons/gun  powder  that  was  in  Concord.  When  they  got  to  Lexington,  70  colonial   militia  are  waiting  for  them.  The  colonials  were  very  outnumbered,  so  they  started  to   disband  and  somebody  (we  don’t  know  who)  fired  and  the  colonials  fired  back.  This   brief  skirmish  was  the  first  interaction  between  the  British  and  the  Americans.  All  the   way  back  to  Boston,  the  militia  followed  the  British  Army.  The  colonies  look  back  on  this   fight  as  the  militia  showing  they  could  stand  up  to  the  British  regular  army.  Gave  them  a   confident  sense  they  would  be  able  to  stand  up  to  them.     Advantages     •   Patriots’  advantages   o   Local  control   §   Know  the  terrain,  move  around  within  political/  social  circles,  know  the   roads,  know  what  areas  are  friendly   o   Supplies/logistics   §   Better  supply  train  than  Brittan   o   Cause   §   Easier  to  defend  your  home  than  to  try  and  run  someone  else  out  of  their   home   •   British  Advantages   o   Centralized   o   Large,  standing  army   §   Can  send  anywhere  in  the  world   o   Lots  of  Loyalists   Disadvantages   •   Patriots’  disadvantages   o   Disorganized   §   Each  colony  has  its  own  militia   §   No  standards  for  how  everyone  is  trained   o   Presence  of  loyalists   •   British  disadvantages   o   Logistics,  distance,  supplies   §   Don’t  own  the  countryside;  colonials  can  interrupt  their  supply  trains   §   Very  far  from  Britain   o   Strategy?   §   Never  have  a  clear  strategy;  they  don’t  know  the  larger  concept  from   what  they’re  trying  to  do   o   Unpopular  at  home   §   British  at  home  just  lived  through  the  7yrs  war  and  they  didn’t  want  to  go   through  it  again     Dual  Army  Tradition   •   Colonists  who  are  becoming  revolutionists  have  to  plan  on  how  to  deal  with  the  British   Army   •   Continental  Army/  Militia   o   Washington  believed  there  needed  to  be  a  regular  force   o   We  have  both  the  continental  army,  and  home  grown  militias   •   Fears  of  standing  army   o   Samuel  Adams  had  a  problem  with  a  large  standing  army   §   Thought  it  was  dangerous  to  the  “liberties  of  the  people”   o   Costs  a  lot  of  money;  we  are  in  trouble  if  a  tyrant  gets  a  hold  of  it   •   Need  to  augment  the  militia   o   They  had  no  standardization   •   Civilian/Congressional  control   o   Congress  oversaw  money,  resources,  generals,  war,  aims,  discipline,  and   sometimes  strategy   o   Washington  got  control  of  the  continental  army     Militia  and  Minutemen   •   By  the  time  of  the  revolution,  the  militia  is  better  trained;  more  and  more  people  have   come  to  the  colonies,  so  there  is  a  greater  number  of  people  to  choose  from  for  the   militia   •   By  1770,  better  trained,  more  disciplined   o   Attacked  loyalists:  Battle  of  Moore’s  Creek  Bridge  (NC  1775)   •   Strengths  for  the  Militia   o   Patrol,  capturing  runaway  slaves  policing,  garrisons,  guards,  small  skirmishes   •   Weaknesses  for  the  Militia   o   Could  not  stand  toe-­‐to-­‐toe  with  regulars  who  have  been  well  trained   •   Minutemen  tended  to  be  out  in  the  country  side;  had  militia  training  in  the  past;  tended   to  be  older;  wouldn’t  turn  out  unless  there  was  a  nearby  battle     Continental  Army   •   Authorized  by  congress   o   Congress’  job  to  raise  money  and  outfit  them  and  get  them  ready   •   New  England  militiamen   o   Boston  had  some  of  the  more  organized  militiamen   •   Lowest  strata  of  society   •   Washington  in  command   o   Does  this  reluctantly   •   Modeled  after  the  British  army     o   Because  that’s  who  Washington  learned  from   Continental  Army  Struggles   •   Most  people  who  go  in  the  revolution  prefer  to  privateer  or  be  in  the  militia  over  being   in  the  continental  army   •   Service  time  was  3yrs,  or  the  duration  of  the  war   o   Often  filled  with  people  who  don’t  have  a  choice   •   Authorized  at  75000  men   o   But,  it  was  usually  half  this  size   •   Actual  size:  less  than  half   •   Soldiers  preferred  the  militia,  privateering     Social  Composition  of  the  Continental  Army   •   Those  who  joined  voluntarily  probably  were  patriotic  and  wanted  to  fight  for  their   country   •   Some  volunteer  farmers,  tradesmen,  mechanics…   •   Also  those  pressed  into  service:  criminals,  ex-­‐slaves,  indentured  servants,  free  blacks,   Loyalists,  vagrants,  apprentices,  and  others  unfree   o   If  loyalists  were  captured,  they  could  be  forced  into  the  army     Continental  Army:  Philosophy   •   Believing  in  freedom/liberty;  standing  up  to  the  British   •   Defending  homes   •   Contract  system-­‐  temporary  regulars   o   Problematic  because  it  included  the  phrase  “or  the  duration  of  the  war”   •   Many  colonials  believed  in  God’s  favor   o   Believed  that  God  has  a  hand  in  what’s  happening  and  the  cause  of  freedom  and   liberty  is  one  that  God  would  smile  upon       1775  Battles  of  Ticonderoga  and  Bunker  (Breed’s)  Hill   •   Continental  army  see  the  growing  number  of  British  troops  and  they  decide  to  try  to   protect  the  city   •   The  British  army  set  up  their  units  and  they  try  the  flanking  maneuver  around  the  side  of   the  hill;  line  of  militiamen  were  waiting  for  them;  on  the  third  attack,  the  colonials  were   tired  and  had  to  retreat  and  the  British  won.  They  grew  in  confidence  because  they  had   the  guts  to  fight  the  British.       Artillery  from  Ft  Ticonderoga   •   Henry  Knox   o   Went  to  Ticonderoga  to  get  the  cannons  and  bring  them  back  to  Boston   o   Went  in  the  winter  and  somehow  dragged  them  300  miles  back  without  losing   any   o   Mount  them  on  the  Dorchester  heights  overlooking  Boston  and  are  able  to  drive   the  British  out  of  Boston  without  even  firing;  early  success  by  the  colonials   o   Not  a  full  war  yet,  but  looking  good  for  the  colonials   •   Artillery  to  defend  Boston     Break  from  Englishmen  to  Independent  Americans   •   Up  until  this  point,  they  saw  themselves  as  Englishmen,  but  past  this  point,  they  think  of   themselves  as  American  Revolutionaries   •   “Popular  uprising”  phase:  rights  of  Englishmen  1775-­‐76  comes  to  an  end   •   War  mentality  of  a  united  front   •   They  wanted  to  know  how  they  could  get  France  and  Spain  as  allies   •   Emboldened  by  the  fact  that  they  get  King  George  and  Parliament  talking  about  how   important  it  is  to  reign  in  the  colonies   o   Falmouth,  ME  &  Norfolk,  VA   §   Two  places  the  British  attack  and  burn  down;  indicates  to  the  colonials   that  they  are  in  trouble     Washington’s  Strategy   •   Defend  the  Army,  not  towns   o   Keep  fighting,  no  matter  what   §   If  they  kept  the  British  fighting,  it  will  only  raise  the  hate  for  war  back  in   England     •   Retreat  through  NY,  NJ   o   Kept  them  in  the  war   o   On  the  other  hand,  the  British  did  not  want  to  chase  them  down  to  fight  them   •   Fight  only  with  clear  advantage   o   Doesn’t  want  to  get  into  a  big  battle   o   Calm  warfare;  guerilla  tactics;  how  a  small  army  defeats  a  big  one   •   Contrast  with  British  strategy,  tactics     1776:  New  York  Campaign:  Crossing  the  Delaware   •   On  the  west  side  of  the  Delaware  looking  at  British  on  the  other  side   •   Decides  to  take  on  a  winter  campaign  (1776)   •   They  see  about  a  thousand  Hessians  across  the  river;  German   •   Washington  decides  to  strike   •   He  then  re  crosses  the  Delaware  to  recruit  more  men   •   Occupied  Trenton   •   Outmaneuvered  British  to  take  Princeton     Northern  Campaign  (1776)   •   Near  the  Great  Lakes,  Ticonderoga,  etc.     •   Militias  in  action   •   Militia  was  successful  at  forcing  the  British  out  of  the  far  northern  colonies   •   Riflemen   o   More  than  before;  also,  had  training  using  rifles   o   Rifled  muskets   o   We  could  hold  full  units  of  riflemen;  not  the  case  before   •   Burgoyne’s  surrender  at  Saratoga   o   Forced  the  British  General  out  of  the  area,  then  he  is  forced  to  surrender     1777-­‐78  Valley  Forge  Winter   •   Washington  is  encamped  at  Valley  Forge   •   Trying  to  keep  the  army  together  in  the  winter  sucks   o   People  are  cold   o   Food  is  gross   o   Not  enough  food  to  stay  healthy   o   Many  didn’t  have  shoes     1778   •   Better  off  when  they  emerge  from  the  Valley  Forge  winter   o   Better  skilled  because  Washington  calls  for  help   o   Tries  to  get  better  food  and  clothing  for  the  soldiers   o   Gets  Marquis  de  Lafayette  and  Gen.  Friedrich  von  Steuben  (from  Germany   where  they  had  been  fighting  for  a  long  time)  and  Nathanael  Greene  to  come   help  with  logistics  and  strategy   •   Better  logistics   •   Better  training,  drills,  musketry   o   Battle  of  Monmouth  Courthouse   §   Continental  army  won  this  battle   •   France  became  an  ally  of  the  revolutionaries   o   Battle  of  Saratoga  signaled  to  the  French  that  the  colonials  were  for  real   •   Spain  (1779),  Dutch  (1780)  declared  war  on  Britain     o   Spain,  Netherlands  on  the  side  of  colonials  to  declare  war  on  Britain     Southern  Campaign   •   Partisan  warfare   o   SC  and  VA  and  GA  backcountry,  lots  of  Loyalists  vs.  militia  getting  into  conflicts   •   Waxhaws  and  “Tarrleton’s  Quarter”  (1780)   o   Moment  at  which  the  colonials  are  being  defeated  and  the  colonial  militia  signals   surrender  and  that  request  to  stop  the  battle  is  turned  down,  so  the  fight  goes   on  and  many  of  the  colonials  are  killed   o   British  commander  Tarrleton  was  in  command   o   You  cannot  surrender  to  the  British  because  they’ll  kill  you  anyway   §   Ungentleman  way  of  fighting  the  war   •   The  worst  winter  (1779-­‐80)   o   Numerous  mutinies   o   Valley  forge  moment  in  the  south   o   Many  people  leave  the  cause   •   Arnold’s  treason   o   Benedict  Arnold  goes  to  the  British  side   •   Battle  of  Camden   o   Colonials  fled  back  toward  Camden       1781  Battle  of  Cowpens   •   Daniel  Morgan  fixes  the  problem  with  a  smart,  astute  deployment  of  his  forces   •   Created  a  battle  plan  where  he  had  a  number  of  his  troops  set  up  on  a  hill  and  put  two   lines  up  in  front,  including  riflemen,  and  a  line  of  militia  behind   •   British  kept  advancing  forward  and  the  dragoons  took  the  flank  from  behind  and  the   militia  reformed  and  hit  the  British  from  the  other  flank   •   Daniel  knew  how  to  use  the  militia   o   Let  them  shoot  from  the  weaker  positions   British  Surrender  (1781)   •   Colonials’  strategy:  use  of  militia,  keep  fighting   •   Foreign  assistance:  Lafayette  and  the  French,  von  Steuben,  Spain,  Netherlands     o   Could  not  have  won  without  them   •   Colonial  interpretations:  Providence     Outcomes   •   Promoted  American  independence  globally   o   French  revolution  (late  1780s),  Haitian  revolution  (1791-­‐1803)   •   Consequences  for  Native  Americans   o   Many  sided  with  the  British  and  are  on  the  losing  end  of  the  American  revolution   o   Americans  are  going  to  want  to  push  out  into  Native  lands   •   “Citizen-­‐soldier”  armies   o   Maintains  a  belief  that  a  standing  army  is  dangerous  to  liberty   o   Militia  is  backbone  to  a  military  force/  American  tradition   •   Social  changes:  Radical  or  conservative  revolution?   o   Radical  revolution   §   Comes  first   §   Ideas  about  liberty  are  new   o   Conservative  revolution   §   Transformation  of  society  was  that  it  was  the  same  that  it  was   •   Women,  slave  statuses  don’t  change     •   Those  who  were  in  power  before  are  still  in  power  now     Keywords   •   Republicans  vs  federalists   •   Coastal  Defense   •   St.  Clair’s         Part  1:  The  Politics  of  Establishing  a  Military:  Reconciling  Liberty  with  Military  Effectiveness     Republicans  (nothing  to  do  with  republican  party  today)   •   Republican  ideology   •   Based  upon  the  idea  of  dispersal  of  power     Federalists   •   Those  who  believe  in  strong,  centralized  federal  government     Threats  to  the  New  Republic   •   Knox  and  the  Society  of  Cincinnati   o   An  American  militant  aristocracy?   o   Secret  society  of  a  group  of  upper  class  military  officers   o   Republicans  are  scared  of  this   •   Troops  mutiny,  storm  the  Capital  (Philadelphia)   o   Wanted  to  go  home  at  the  end  of  the  war  but  the  congress  wasn’t  ready  to  let   them  go  because  they  didn’t  know  what  was  happening  next,  so  some  troops  got   together  and  stormed  Philly  to  show  their  displeasure   •   Newburgh  Conspiracy  and  Address   o   Not  really  talked  about  overthrowing  the  government  but  was  showing  negative   feelings  about  the  end  of  the  war  and  the  direction  the  country  was  going     Washington’s  Five  Necessities   •   Navy  and  Coastal  Forts   •   Militia  with  national  standards   o   Weaponry,  uniform,  training   •   Standing  Army  to  garrison  the  west   o   1  American  regiment   §   Organized,  officially  US  federal  force  (national  army)   •   Arsenals   o   Supplies  set  around  in  certain  places   •   Military  Academy   o   West  Point  1802     Series  of  Compromises   •   The  constitution:  a  military  with  two  masters   o   States:  could  not  make  alliances  or  war;  could  not  maintain  warships,  non-­‐militia   troops,  or  privateers;  all  reserved  for  federalist  government   o   Retained  a  “well  regulated”  militia  (2  amendment)     Treaties  with  Indians   •   Federal  government’s  job   •   1778-­‐1868   •   Congressional  power   o   Acquire  land  and  treaty  relationships  with  Natives   •   Land,  commerce     The  West   •   Ohio  River  Valley  1790   •   British  forts   •   Native  Resistance   o   Sometimes  settle  on  Native  American  land,  and  they  get  attacked   •   Two  major  defeats  as  they  try  to  check  Native  powers  in  the  West   o   St.  Clair’s  Defeat   §   1500  troops   §   Poorly  trained     §   Routed  by  1000  Miami  and  Shawnee  Warriors     §   Massive  defeat  for  the  American  regiment   •   “Frontier  Constabulary”      


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