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ANS 2: Week 2 Notes

by: Mackenzie Hayes

ANS 2: Week 2 Notes ANS 002

Mackenzie Hayes
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About this Document

These notes cover lecture from 4/4, 4/6, and 4/8, with important diagrams from lecture slides included
Introductory Animal Science
Dr. James Murray
Class Notes
Animal Science




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
Animal Science 2: Week 2 Notes  4/4:  ● California livestock­based annual income: ($)  ○ Milk + Cream ~ 9 billion  ○ Cattle + Calves ~ 4 billion  ○ Chicken + Eggs ~ 1.5 billion  ○ Turkey ~ 230 million   ○ Hogs + Pigs ~ 40 million  ○ Aquaculture ~ 13 million  ● ^ equals about $1.5 billion (8% total US GDP; 30% CA GDP)  ● Immediate ancestors to domestic species arebiologically the same animals   ○ Yet considered to be a ​ifferent species  ○ i.e.: domestic dog = most morphologically diverse species on earth  ○ Controlling traits of a species starts with understanding anatomy, hormones, and  reproduction  ● Reproductive Biology:  ● Main Points to Know:  ○ Male + Female anatomy  ○ Spermatogenesis + oogenesis  ○ Function of cells in testes + ovary  ○ Hormones involved in reproduction  ● Generalized Male Reproductive Anatomy:  ○ Ductus deferens = vas deferens (transfers sperm to glands)  ○ Bladder is the “landmark” but not part of reproductive system  ○ Testis (produce sperm + testosterone)  ■ Problematic to health if not descended  ■ Housed inside the scrotum  ○ Epididymis (site of male meiosis + where sperm mature)  ■ Takes 6 weeks for sperm to fully develop  ○ Glands: ampullary, vesicular, prostate, bulbourethral   ■ Add components to seminal fluid  ■ No ampullary gland in bulls  ○ *be able to label diagrams of reproductive system*    ● Castration: purposes  ○ Sometimes for management (improve aggression)  ○ Convenience (can’t impregnate females)  ○ Production (will put on more fat / marbling)  ● Testicular Anatomy: *needs rich blood supply*  ○ Pampiniform plexus (cools + heats the blood entering and leaving)  ○ Consists of billions of seminiferous tubules   ■ Drain into larger ducts = epididymis to proceed to ejaculation    4/6:  ● Testis:  ○ Composed of seminiferous tubules + space  ○ Blood­testis barrier much like blood­brain barrier  ○ Sertoli Cel: nurses sperm cells through meiosis  ○ Spermatogonial Cells go through meiosis  ○ Spermatids:​ haploid cells produced from spermatogonial dividing  ○ Leydig/Interstitial Ce: receives hormone from pituitary + produces testosterone  ● Hormones of Male Reproduction:  ○ *be able to replicate chart*  ○ Negative feedback​ inhibits further production  ○ Positive feedbac​ promotes more production (uncommon)  ■ The product also acts as the “trigger”    ● Spermatogenesis: *continuous while oogenesis is not*  ○ Replicates DNA (2N, 2C → 4N, 4C)  ○ Cell can then become 4 haploid sperm or duplicate itself  ○ Crossing over occurs randomly in both sexes    4/8:  ● Female Reproduction:  ● The ​ egg = the largest cell in the body / sperm​ = the smallest  ○ Smooth outer egg membrane  ○ Comes from ovary (site of oogenesis)  ○ Moves to infundibulum (essentially covers the ovary + shuttles egg to oviduct)  ○ Fertilization takes place in oviduct  ● Most mammals have similar configuration   ○ Shape of uterine horn + cervix will differ   ● Reproductive Organs of Hens:  ○ *NOT controlled by hormones* systematic, make an egg each day  ○ Oviduct has many functional regions  ■ Magnum ​ ­ puts albumen around yolk  ■ Isthmus​  ­ puts down shell membrane  ■ Uterus ​­ “shell gland”, lays on calcified hard shell  ○ Like other females, hens are still born with all the egg cells for their lifetime  ■ Takes about 24 hours to produce an egg  ○ Sperm is held in the infundibulum for later fertilization  ● Oogenesis:  ○ Estrous cycle lengths:  ■ Cattle ­ 21 days  ■ Horse ­ 21­23 days  ■ Pig ­ 21 days  ■ Goat ­ 21 days  ■ Sheep ­ 16­17 days  ■ Mouse ­ 4­5 days  ○ Estrous types:   ■ Monoestrous (dog)  ■ Polyestrous (cattle)  ■ Seasonally polyestrous (goat)  ■ Reflex ovulator (cat)  ■ Anestrous   ● Hormones:  ○ GnRH​ : released by hypothalamus to stimulate release of LH and FSH  ○ FSH​ : female ­ growth in ovary; male ­ stimulates cells in testes  ○ LH​ : female ­ stimulates estrogen production + ovulation, male ­ stimulates  testosterone production in Leydig cells    ● Cells of the Follicle:  ○ Theca Cells:​  respond to LH to make androgens   ○ Granulosa Cells: ​ respond to FSH to produce estradiol  ■ Essentially convert androgens into estrogen (estradiol)  ○ Corpus Luteus:​  produce progesterone   


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