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Biology 1060 Unit 3 Week 5 Notes

by: Margaret Notetaker

Biology 1060 Unit 3 Week 5 Notes Bio 1060

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Margaret Notetaker

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These are the lecture notes for the last week of the plant unit.
General Biology II
Dr. Thole
Class Notes
Biology, plants, monocot, Eudicot
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1060 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Thole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Saint Louis University.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
Margaret  S   General  Biology  (Bio  1060)  Week  5  Lecture  Notes   Unit  3:  Plants       4-­‐4-­‐16     What  Adaptations  Were  Important  for  Life  on  Land?   • Seeds,  which  allow  for  reproduction  without  water   • Roots,  which  pull  water  from  the  s   • Xylem  (sclerenchyma  cells)  is  a  sort  of  “skeleton”  for  land  plants  so  they  can   stay  upright  on  lan   o Bryophytes  are  tiny  because  they  don’t  have  thi   • Pollen  is  important  for  fertilization,  and  allows  plants  to  use  wind  to  their   advantage   • The  wax  cuticle  is  used  to  keep  water  in  and  to  keep  the  inside  of  the  plant   wet;  overall  it  conserves  water     Bryophytes:  Liverworts,  Mosses,  Hornworts  are  a  Paraphyletic  Group   • Algae  have  cell  walls   • Bryophytes  are  nonvascular   • They  use  spores  instead  of  seeds  (similar  to  fungi)   o Spores  are  always  haploid  and  divide  mitotically  to  make  new   organisms   • Bryophytes  are  SMALL  (water  diffuses  through  their  tissues)   • Bryophytes  don’t  need  soil  for  water  uptake   • Bryophytes  do  not  have  true  leaves   • Bryophytes  form:  fuzzy  haploid  gametophytes  (which  produce  gametes)  and   sporophytes  (diploid  stalks  that  yield  spores)   o Sporophytes  are  bigger  than  gametophytes   o Sporophytes  stay  attached  to  gametophytes   o Gametophyte  is  dominant  to  the  sporophyte,  because  the  sporophyte   cannot  live  on  its  own   • Bryophytes  are  the  result  of  the  first  step  onto  land   • Gametophytes  are  much  more  visible   • Sporophytes  are  fused  gametes,  and  they  divide  mitotically  to  produce  new   organisms  with  gametophytes     Moss  Life  Cycle:  Haplodiplontic   • Moss  are  dependent  on  water  for  dispersing  sperm   • this  is  the  haplodiplontic  life   cycle   • In  mosses,  only  the  sporophyte  is  diploid;  the  egg  is  retained  while  sperm  are   released  in  response  to  rain   • Sporophyte  contains  tissue  called  sporangium,  specifically  where  meiosis   occurs     Lycophytes  and  Ferns-­‐Still  Rely  on  Water  For  Fertilization  (Don’t  Use   Seeds)   • True  vascular  plants   • Lycophytes,  ferns,  gymnosperms,  angiosperms,  and  even  bryophytes  are  all   land  plants,  but  bryophytes  are  not  vascular   • Rhinie  cherts  preserve  fossils  of  early  vascular  plants  (400  mya)   • Rhynia  plants:   o Still  no  true  roots   o Stems  have  true  vascular  tissue  in  middle   o Cuticle   o Stomata  (CO2  in,  O2  out)   o No  true  leaves  yet   o Sporangia  for  spores  to  be  produced   • Earliest  lycophyte  fossils:   o Leaflike  arrangements  though  not  true  leaves   • Lycophytes:  leaves  and  roots  are  seedless,  vascular  plants;  they  are  the  early   land  plants,  with  single  veins,  and  they  reproduce  with  spores   o 1  living  group  called  isoetes,  which  contain  vascular  cambium   o In  the  Jurassic  period,  giant  now-­‐extinct  lycophyte  trees  evolved   seedlike  structures   • Ferns  and  horsetails  are  also  seedless  vascular  plants   o Ferns  are  leafy,  they  are  found  in  the  understory  of  the  rainforest  and   are  common  houseplants   • Fern  life  cycle:   o The  adult  sporophyte  is  independent  of  the  gametophyte   o The  only  dominant  sporophyte  eventually  becomes  large  and   independent  with  the  development  of  vascular  tissues   o Gametophytes  are  too  small  to  be  seen   o The  sporophyte  and  leaf  are  the  only  diploid  structures  in  the  life   cycle   o The  egg  is  retained,  and  the  sperm  are  released  in  moisture   o Sporangia  are  on  the  underside  of  fern  leaves,  where  meiosis  occurs   to  produce  spores   • All  plants  up  until  now  have  needed  water  to  reproduce       4-­‐6-­‐16     Seed  Plants  Finally  Eliminate  Water  Dependency  for  Fertilization   • Seed  plants  have  vascular  tissue,  seeds,  and  pollen   • Consist  of  angiosperms  and  gymnosperms   • Seeds  are  embryos,  and  they  also  have  a  holding  for  food  (for  angiosperms,   this  is  called  the  endosperm),  as  well  as  an  outer  seed  coat  (integument)   • Gymnosperms  have  no  endosperm,  so  they  don’t  undergo  double  fertilization   • The  presence  of  pollen  in  both  types  of  seed  plants  eliminates  the  need  for   water   o Pollen  is  a  male  gamete  (sperm)  that  is  dispersed  by  air     Gymnosperms   • Gymnosperms  have  “naked  seeds”  (their  seeds  are  not  contained  within   fruit)   • 4  groups  of  gymnosperms  are  still  alive   • No  flowers   • Gymnosperms  develop  on  a  “scale”  (piece  of  a  cone)   o The  lower  part  of  the  tree  is  male  cones   o Upper  part  of  the  tree  is  female  cones   • Gymnosperm  life  cycle:  sporophyte  dominant   • Sporangia:  site  of  meiosis,  produces  both  male/female  gametophytes  from   spores   o Pollen:  male   o Ovule:  female   • Gametophytic  phase  is  completely  reduced  to  pollen  and  egg   • Fertilization  occurs  on  the  cone  scale   • 4  Types  of  Gymnosperms:   o Cycads:  look  like  palm  trees  but  with  cone  structures  (about  300   species)   o Ginkgo:  only  1  species,  seeds  form  fleshy  structure  that  looks  like  fruit   but  isn’t   o Conifers:  most  diverse  group,  typical  Evergreen  trees,  live  in  dry/cold   places   o Gnetophytes:  very  weird,  look  like  angiosperms  but  aren’t     Angiosperms   • Angiosperms  changed  the  planet  about  140  mya   • Specific  to  angiosperms:  flowers,  double  fertilization,  fruit  from  ripened   ovaries  of  flowers   • Angiosperms  were  so  successful  that  they  came  to  quickly  outnumber   everything  else   • Amborella,  water  lilies,  star  anise,  and  magnolids  are  very  ancient   angiosperms   • Angiosperms  can  be  split  into  two  groups:  monocots  and  eudicots   • The  most  diversity  in  angiosperms  is  between  monocots  and  eudicots     Monocots   • 1  embryonic  seed  leaf   • No  vascular  cambium  (never  produce  wood),  scattered  vascular  bundles   • Parallel  venation  (grass,  wheat,  rice,  corn,  and  barley  all  have  parallel  veins)   • Floral  organs  occur  in  multiples  of  3  (3,  6,  9  petals,  as  well  as  actual  flowers   occur  in  triplets)     Eudicots   • Most  diverse  group  of  angiosperms   • True  dicots  are  eudicots,  sisters  to  monocots,  but  amborella,  water  lilies,  star   anise,  and  magnolids  are  all  dicots   • Eudicots  have  2  embryonic  stem  leaves   • Vascular  cambium  (can  have  wood),  vascular  bundles  are  in  rings   • Net-­‐like  venation   • Floral  organs  in  multiples  of  4  or  5     Life  Cycle  of  Angiosperms   • Different  because  it  includes  double  fertilization  and  female  gametophyte  is   enclosed  in  sporophyte  tissue  (which  becomes  fruit)   • Dormancy  of  seeds  is  key  to  life  cycle     Plant  Evolutionary  Trends   • As  plants  have  evolved,  sporophyte  generation  became  dominant  and   gametophyte  generation  is  reduced   • Moving  from  water  to  land,  starting  with  green  algae   o In  the  aquatic  environment:  the  plant  is  completely  submerged  and   desiccation  is  not  an  issue   o Algae  and  mosses  have  a  small  and  simple  body  with  no  need  for   specialized  vascular  system   o Cell  densities  are  similar  to  water  densities   o To  move  to  land,  plants  needed  to  prevent  water  loss,  transport  H2O   and  nutrients,  and  to  support  the  body   • Prevention  of  water  loss   o Cuticle  (waxy  layer  prevents  diffusion  to  some  degree)   o Stomata  (2  guard  cells  form  pores  in  leaves)   • Water  transport  and  upright  growth   o Vascular  system  is  made  of  elongated  hollow  cells  joined  together   (xylem)   o First  group  to  develop  vascular  system  is  lycophytes  (bryophytes  do   not  have  this)   o Evolutionary  sequence  of  water-­‐conducting  cells   o Simple  water  conducting  cells  are  in  bryophytes,  they  have  no  lignin,   and  they  are  the  beginning  of  the  vascular  tissue   o First  vascular  systems:  lycophytes  have  these,  lignin  is  present,   primary  and  secondary  cell  walls   o Tracheids:  narrow  cells  organized  like  pipes,  solid  secondary  cell  wall   of  lignin  (lycophytes,  ferns,  gymnosperms)   o Vessel  elements:  (gnetophores  and  angiosperms),  wider,  ends  have   gaps,  lignin   o Water-­‐conducting  cells  are  dead  at  maturity   o The  absence  of  cytoplasm  increases  the  efficiency  of  water  transport   • How  do  plants  reproduce  in  dry  areas?   o The  oldest  lineages  (lycophytes,  ferns)  need  water  for  fertilization   (use  swimming  gametes)   o Limits  plant  size  to  have  limited  access  to  water   o Limits  where/when  plants  can  reproduce   o Pollen  is  a  major  innovation  for  dry  areas   • There  is  an  evolutionary  shift  from  gametophyte  dominated  generations  to   sporophytic  dominated  generations   • There  is  an  evolutionary  shift  from  sporophytic  dependency  on  gametophyte   to  sporophytic  independence     4-­‐8-­‐16:  Test  Day  


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