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Psych 3690, Aggression Part 1

by: Winny Lu

Psych 3690, Aggression Part 1 Psych 360

Marketplace > University of Maryland Baltimore > Psychlogy > Psych 360 > Psych 3690 Aggression Part 1
Winny Lu

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These notes covers theories and the types of aggression discussed in class
Motivational Psychology
Bernard Rabin
Class Notes
Pscyhology, motivation, #aggression
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Winny Lu on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Maryland Baltimore taught by Bernard Rabin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Motivational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland Baltimore.

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Date Created: 04/11/16
1 W.Lu Rabin Aggression (Apr.12.2016) I. Definitions a. Behavior: i. Class of negative behaviors in which one individual attacks or threatens harm to another, or inflicts harm or injury b. Motivation: i. Intent to harm 1. Animals are aggressive but they do not have the intent to harm 2. Example: a. Young children can show forms of aggression but they usually do not have the intent to harm c. Most common definition : Behaviors that are designed to do physical or psychological damage II. Introduction a. Types of aggression i. Verbal/ physical 1. Verbal can have a longer effect on an individual than physical ii. Active/ passive b. Sex differences in aggression i. The difference between sex in aggression is form NOT amount 1. Female: more passive and verbal 2. Male: more direct and physical a. These differences are learned i. Example: Situation “Tommy hit me” 1. Girlstells Dad a. Dad goes to see Tommy and maybe punish him 2. Boys tells dad a. Dad does not care as much because it is viewed that boys play like that all the time III. Animal Aggression a. Moyer (1976) i. 8 types of Aggression 1. Predatory 2. Territorial defense 3. Fear induced 4. Internal 2 W.Lu Rabin ii. Different neural circuits control the different types of aggression IV. Animal Aggression: Agnostic behavior a. Cannot get at “intent” i. Animals do not have intent b. Specific causal stimulation i. Presentation of aversive (”irritating” stimuli” 1. Shock elicited aggression 2. Proximity to other animals (territorial) 3. Dominance hierarchy males 4. Ritual fights for mates V. Human Aggression: Introduction a. Behaviors that are designed to do physical or psychological damage i. INTENT IS THE KEY COMPONENT b. Most relevant to the type of aggression defined in the frustration-aggression hypothesis i. Emotional aggression VI. Frustration- Aggression Hypothesis a. Impulsive or emotional aggression i. Original frustration-aggression hypothesis 1. Frustration necessary connection between frustration and aggression 2. Frustration is a necessary precursor to aggression a. Frustration: the failure to achieve anticipated goal 3. Aggression always presuppose frustration Frustration leads to aggression FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION 4. Problem: there is not always the necessary connection between frustration and aggression a. Frustration does not always lead to aggression b. Aggression can occur with prior aggression ii. Berkowitz frustration-aggression hypothesis 1. Frustration causes an emotional arousal which created a readiness to respond with aggression a. Whether or not aggression will occur depends on the nature of the target FRUSTRATION EMOTIONAL AGGRESSION AROUSAL 3 W.Lu Rabin 2. Some example forms of aggression would be a. Crying  passive aggression b. Cursing verbal aggression 3. EMOTIONAL AROUSAL GIVE RISE TO AGGRESSION 4. Aggression is stimulus bound a. Whether or not aggression will occur depends upon the nature of the target i. direct aggression aggression to perceive cause ii. Indirect aggression 1. Change in form a. Example i. From verbal to physical aggression 2. Change in object 5. Support a. Berkowitz and LePage (1967) i. Asked participants to give shocks to a confederate in the room with different object in the room 1. One had a gun in the roomaggression 2. Another had a racquet in the room not aggression ii. Results: 1. Found that participates gave more shocks to the stooge with the gun in the room 2. How we respond to the emotional arousal caused by frustration varies as a function of the target a. Example: i. It is more appropriate to act with aggression towards a boxer as opposed to a grandma VII. Instrumental Aggression a. Aggressive behavior that is instrumental in obtaining reinforcement i. Harmful behavior rewarded by some event not itself directly related to aggression 1. Example: boxing a. do not engage in boxing because they enjoy hitting people 4 W.Lu Rabin i. they did it for the money 1. aggression is rewarded by money and not actually hitting b. Green and Pigg: i. High awards high shocks 1. did not care about the pain but just the awards VIII. Social Learning Theory a. Theory of aggression stressing the role of models and imitation in the occurrence of aggressive behavior i. Bandura (1963) 1. Took children and asked them to observe aggression (hitting a bobo doll) from a. Live adults b. Films of adults c. A cartoon 2. Results: a. Children that observed aggressive models were more aggressive than the children who did not observe aggression b. Independent of live adult, film adult or cartoon characters c. boys were more aggressive d. same sex model more aggression e. children viewed aggressive model as “bad” and non- aggressive as “good” f. preferred aggressive model when they did not receive punishment (achieved goal) i. child who saw the adult punished for hitting the doll were less likely to hit the doll themselves IX. obedient aggression: Milgram (1974) a. aggression in obedience to authority i. Task: administer increasing levels of electric shock to a “learner” whenever they got a question wrong 1. The “learner” was a paid actor a. They were not really shocked 2. The shocks were labeled with increasing levels of severity b. Results: i. 26/40 subjects administer potentially lethal levels of shock ii. No effect of age or gender iii. Moderating factor: the degree on contact between the “learner” and the subject 5 W.Lu Rabin 1. If the learner is in the same room as the subject, they are less likely to go to the full shock iv. Criticism: 1. Rabinthe way it was debriefed was not as serious and can have serious psychological implications a. Milgram: “just kidding, the person in there was an actor.” b. Subject: “ Wow, I would do that just because someone told me to?” X. Zimbardo (1970) : factors the affect the occurrence of aggression a. Deindividuation i. Reduced capacity to think of oneself as an individual, particularly in terms of societal or moral standards, resulting in a loss of self-awareness ii. Disguised subjects delivered larger electric shocks to an innocent victim than did non-disguised subjects wearing name tags 1. Disguise= High electric shocks lower moral standards XI. Zimbardo (1972): Prison experiment a. Do individuals with certain personality types become prison guards or does the environment elicit certain types of behavior? b. Normal college students randomly assigned as guard or prisoner i. Guards: 1. maintain order but not abusive 2. Go home after 8 hour shift ii. prisoners: 1. arrested, fingerprinted and maintained in a “prison” c. results: i. Prisoner: 1. Highly emotional (negative emotion) 2. Depression, extreme anxiety, psychosomatic illness, thoughts of harming others ii. Guards: 1. Gave commands 2. Insulted /threaten 3. Verbal/physical aggression 4. Some guards were so abusive that they would be characterized as sadistic d. Conclusion: i. The situation of the model prison produced behavioral changes in normal, well-adjusted college students 1. Followed roles a. Environment can elicit behaviors 6 W.Lu Rabin XII. Cause of aggression: Biology a. Genetics i. Organisms can be bred to be more or less aggressive ii. Difference in aggression between the sexes are in form and not amount b. Brain mechanisms i. Destruction of certain parts of the limbic system aggression 1. Some parts of the limbic system can be related to taming a. Ex: monkey hierarchy i. alpha male 1. tamed them by removing parts of the limbic system 2. went down to the bottom of the hierarchy c. Hormones i. Testosterone 1. Related to some types of aggression in non-primate mammals offensive aggression 2. No reliable evidence of similar role in human aggression d. Neurotransmitters i. Serotonin 1. Low serotonin= high antisocial behavior, aggression, suicide, impulsive violence 2. in monkeys a. dominant male = high serotonin ii. maybe related to an organism’s happiness level 1. lower serotonin= more happy XIII. Causes of aggression: environment a. Aversive incidents i. Impulsive/ hostile aggression 1. Ex: cheating spouse murder spouse impulsively a. Death penalty is not good for these situations because impulsive aggression usually does not happen again b. Attacks i. Become aggressive when attacked by others c. Painful stimuli i. Shock causes animals to attack one another ii. Humans will do this too d. Crowding i. Being cramped leads to aggression ii. Under social control 7 W.Lu Rabin 1. Evidence: urban area with denser populations found to have higher violent crime rates 2. Against: more likely to report crime in an urban area e. Temperature i. High temperature = high aggression f. Cultural factors i. Cultures vary in degree to which they foster aggression and competition 1. High individualism = high aggression


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