CDAE 127 notes from 4-6 political campaign
CDAE 127 notes from 4-6 political campaign CDAE 127
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by kaswimmer on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 127 at University of Vermont taught by Sun Tao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Consumer Policy in Business at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
• We watched numerous older political campaign ads and dicussed what has changed over the last 50 or so years of TV political ads. – Use of female voices – Showing the actual candidates in the ad more now as well as speaking to the camera less now • You don’t want to use yourself to sell yourself- have someone reputable speak on your behalf • By the 50’s, they have been using more attack ads iClicker Exercise Which of the following represents the indirect effects of political advertising: a. Its impact on learning b. The effect of its tone on voter turnout c. Both of the above Secondary Effects of PoliticalAds We pay particular attention to work on and debates about these secondary effects, including the impact of advertising on citizen learning and the effect of advertising tone on turnout. Secondary= indirect (same) Compare political ads to debates Voter Learning Although there is no agreement about the impact of advertising on voters’knowledge of candidates, more than one study has found evidence that exposure to advertising has a positive influence on learning. Helps votes learn about the issues and candidates 14-5 Voter Learning Just et al. (1990) conclude that ads do a better job of informing electorates than debates do because debates can be confusing for many voters. By contrast, “ads, which tend to present a single viewpoint, reduce confusion and aid learning for all kinds of viewers” (Just et al. 1990, p. 131). More helpful than debates because they are less condensed and less confusing—only one point made at a time on an ad vs many and biased answered during a debate Voter Learning People tend to recall more information about an advertisement when it is sponsored by a preferred candidate than when it is not (Faber & Storey 1984). We act based on what we expect—self fulfilling prophesy. Reinforcing affects are more likely than changing the entire view points. You target your voters– don’t try to massively swing someone who doesn’t agree with your passion Negativity and Turnout • Kahn & Kenney (1999, p. 878) take a step toward addressing this criticism by making a distinction between negativity—“legitimate criticism”—and mudslinging, which they define as “harsh and shrill information that is only tangentially related to governing.” They find that the former increases turnout, whereas the latter reduces it. • Freedman & Lawton (2004) make a similar distinction between “fair” and “unfair” advertisements and find that turnout declines only when opposing candidates both run “unfair” advertising campaigns. 14-8 Approaches to Measuring Ad Exposure Unfortunately, it has often been difficult to draw any hard conclusions about the impact of advertising on vote choice or voter learning, or about the impact of its tone on voter turnout. There is just not enough agreement in the literature. EXAM QUESTION** Why disagreement? Because Its difficult to measure the exposure to political ads via TV or other 14-9 Approaches to Measuring Ad Exposure We submit that one reason for this lack of consensus is that scholars have used a vast number of methods to measure the key independent variable in these studies: advertising exposure. Diversity of method is good, but many of the methods employed have serious drawbacks. 14-10 Approaches to Measuring Ad Exposure Four of these approaches focus on measuring the information environment of a particular campaign through the use of aggregate campaign spending data, archival collections of television commercials, logs from the public files of television stations, and tracking data. Its hard to measure commercial affects but they think it works They assume the more you spend the more ads you have the more times people see your ad Approaches to Measuring Ad Exposure The other three approaches—experimentation, self reports by survey respondents, and proxy measures of exposure (e.g., political knowledge) —attempt to measure the effects of advertising. Each of these methods has weaknesses that make it difficult for scholars both to characterize the information environment and to infer how campaign messages influence the attitudes and behavior of citizens. Limited Media Effects They, the media and candidates, do not have a direct impact. They influence community leaders or influential people and they are ones that convince the “smaller vote” cause they will trust the opinion leaders Citizens United v. FEC (2010) First Amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation. The principles articulated by the Supreme Court in the case have also been extended to for-profit corporations, labor unions and other associations. By allowing unlimited election spending by individuals and corporations, the decision has "re- shaped the political landscape" of the United States. First court decision about the matter and this open the flood gates for people to make unlimited amounts of donations. Freedom of speech right now applies to organizations as it would people McCutcheon v. FEC (2014) While the ruling overturned limits on aggregate federal campaign contributions, it did not affect limits on how much individuals can give to an individual politician's campaign, which remain at $2,600 per election. No personal limit per person how much you can donate (???) by donating to candidates you are using your freedom of speech– EXAM QUESTION** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCutcheon_v._FEC Trivialize the political process? 14-16
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