The Environment Week of April 4 Notes
The Environment Week of April 4 Notes ENVT 0845-005
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVT 0845-005 at Temple University taught by Dr. Udoeyo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see The Environment in Professional Education Services at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Recycling o Primary: closed loop; recycles products to produce new products of the same type o Secondary: closed loop; with waste producing different products Solid Waste o Municipal solid waste management policy Policies and management set by city and county governments o Federal gov’t has some oversight 1899 Rivers and Harbors Act 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act 1970 Resource Recovery Act EPA accomplished the converting of all open dumps to sanitary landfills by 1980 o Municipal decisions mostly driven by costs Industrial solid waste: includes all of the waste generated at each stage in the manufacture of products o Waste streams vary greatly across facilities o Usually collected and managed by private sector o Un US, 7.6 billion tons of waste per year Some end up in industrial waste facilities, some in municipal landfills Hazardous Waste o Any solid or liquid that meets any of the following criteria o Contains one or more of 39 toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic compounds above established limits. i.e. lead, and dioxins o Catches fire easily o Is explosive or releases fumes Three categories: o Sourcespecific waste: i.e. sludge and wastewater from petroleum refiners o Nonspecificsource wastes: solvents used for cleaning or degreasing o Discarded commercial chemical wastes: unused paints, expired medications, etc. Methods of disposal o Permanent retrieval storage sites Special landfills that are monitored for leakage o Chemical processing o Hightemperature incineration o Bioremediation Living organism breakdown o Superfund sites: federal government’s program to clean up the nations uncontrolled hazardous waste sites Hazardous: electronic and radioactive waste o Electronic waste )ewaste) Regulation only recent Discarded electronics Contains many heavy and precious metals Recycling less than 20% o US doesn’t have national regulations o European union and some US states have takeback regulations Manufactures must take back product at end of life cycle o Radioactive Waste Material that is contaminated by isotopes of elements that emit destructive forms of radiation Require long term monitoring Low level radioactive waste Low amount of radioisotopes Greatest volume of radioactive waste Mostly from hospitals and labs High level radioactive waste Spent fuel rods from nuclear power plants Most dangerous Managing product life cycles o Life cycle assessment Method to evaluate environmental impact of product through all stages of life cycle Inventory analysis o Inputs and outputs of energy, material and pollutants Impact analysis o Environmental, economic, health, social, and cultural impacts of inputs and outputs Improvement analysis o Opportunities to reduce impacts Mitigating Global Warming Ways to reduce global warming: Fossil Fuel o Changing type of fossil fuel Coal vs. natural gas o Carbon capture and storage (CCS) Capture CO2 and store—instead of directing fumes up into the air, direct it into pipes that go into the ground Renewable Energy Nuclear Energy Biostorage o Storing carbon in forests and soil o Plant trees Carbon neutral—not generating CO2 o Reduce carbon footprint Improve efficiency o Carbon offsets Plant trees, develop renewable energy Adapting to Global Warming o Committed warming = even if we were to stop all emissions immediately, some warming would still occur – inevitable change Drier climate and drought are more likely to occur in regions where water is already in short supply and is often a source of political conflict Water supply Agriculture Increased rainfall and flooding Agriculture Infrastructure Increasing heat Crop losses Fire Patterns of storms o Coastal areas at risk Rising sea level o Coastal regions in danger Regional difference o Capacity to adapt not evenly distributed o Wealthy countries have the resources to make adjustments that minimize effects Mitigation and adaptation policies o How can future costs be compared to present costs? o Robert Socolow estimates: o Cost of adaptation: Move from business as usual to sustainable world 12% of GDP cost of damages of business as usual more than 4% of gdp 2009 third world climate conference, U.N. Secretary general Ban KiMoon – “the cost of inaction today will be far greater than the cost of action tomorrow. Not just for future generations, but for this generation, too”. Some policymakers –co2 emissions could be cut significantly by increased taxed on gasoline and other fuels Policy alternatives o Regulations Rules to reduce CO2e Corporate average fuel economy (CAFÉ)—current standard for automobiles is 27.5 mpg This will increase to 35 mpg by 2020 o Economic incentives Tax credits—some power plants may purchase credits from other utilities whose CO2 is below the cap Cap and trade—sets a standard for the level of CO2 emissions allowed to produce by each power plant Agreeing on the facts o Consensus among nations is critical International Global Change Policy o Earth Summit—the first international step to reduce greenhouse emissions o Kyoto protocol Side notes Sulfur dioxide released from volcanic eruptions cools the atmosphere El Nino is an oscillation of ocean currents in the Pacific ocean Most abundant greenhouse gas is Water Vapor The most common source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is fossil fuel burning Almost 75% of earths fresh water is contained in snow and ice Sea levels rise because of ice melt and thermal expansion of water Committed warming is warming that will occur no matter what Chapter 9 Air Quality The killer Smog Case Study Deadly air pollution in Donora, Pennsylvania, 1948 o Zinc smelting factory, where smog is common Weather conditions trapped smog for days 20 died and thousands became sick Led to the air pollution act of 1955 and clean air act of 1967 Pollution Air quality o Gasses and small particles in atmosphere that influence ecosystems or human wellbeing Air pollutions Gasses or particles that are high enough concentrations to harm humans, organisms, or structures Gasses of atmosphere: o Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), argon (Ar) are over 99% of the atmosphere Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) o Chemicals that vaporize into the air o Wide range of chemicals o Natural or anthropogenic Aerosols o Cause clouds and fog Primary Air pollutants Chemicals or particles directly emitted from identifiable source The elemental mercury released by combustion and volcanic eruptions Carbon monozide and sulfur dioxide that are released when fossil fuels burn The chloroflourocarbons that are released from various source Pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere by diffusion, convection, and wind patterns Convections causes pollutants to disperse more rapidly. Results from differences in gas density caused by differences in temperature Air temp decreases with increasing altitude
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