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The Environment Week of April 4 Notes

by: Katrina Salamon

The Environment Week of April 4 Notes ENVT 0845-005

Marketplace > Temple University > Professional Education Services > ENVT 0845-005 > The Environment Week of April 4 Notes
Katrina Salamon

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About this Document

These are the notes from the week of April 4th for The Environment
The Environment
Dr. Udoeyo
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVT 0845-005 at Temple University taught by Dr. Udoeyo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see The Environment in Professional Education Services at Temple University.

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Date Created: 04/11/16
 Recycling o Primary: closed loop; recycles products to produce new products of the  same type o Secondary: closed loop; with waste producing different products   Solid Waste o Municipal solid waste management policy   Policies and management set by city and county governments o Federal gov’t has some oversight  1899 Rivers and Harbors Act  1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act  1970 Resource Recovery Act  EPA accomplished the converting of all open dumps to sanitary  landfills by 1980 o Municipal decisions mostly driven by costs  Industrial solid waste: includes all of the waste generated at each stage in the  manufacture of products o Waste streams vary greatly across facilities o Usually collected and managed by private sector o Un US, 7.6 billion tons of waste per year  Some end up in industrial waste facilities, some in municipal  landfills  Hazardous Waste o Any solid or liquid that meets any of the following criteria o Contains one or more of 39 toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic  compounds above established limits. i.e. lead, and dioxins o Catches fire easily  o Is explosive or releases fumes  Three categories: o Source­specific waste: i.e. sludge and wastewater from petroleum refiners o Nonspecific­source wastes: solvents used for cleaning or degreasing o Discarded commercial chemical wastes: unused paints, expired  medications, etc.   Methods of disposal o Permanent retrieval storage sites  Special landfills that are monitored for leakage o Chemical processing o High­temperature incineration o Bioremediation  Living organism breakdown o Superfund sites: federal government’s program to clean up the nations  uncontrolled hazardous waste sites  Hazardous: electronic and radioactive waste o Electronic waste )e­waste)  Regulation only recent  Discarded electronics  Contains many heavy and precious metals  Recycling less than 20% o US doesn’t have national regulations  o European union and some US states have take­back regulations  Manufactures must take back product at end of life cycle  o Radioactive Waste  Material that is contaminated by isotopes of elements that emit  destructive forms of radiation  Require long term monitoring  Low level radioactive waste  Low amount of radioisotopes  Greatest volume of radioactive waste  Mostly from hospitals and labs  High level radioactive waste  Spent fuel rods from nuclear power plants  Most dangerous   Managing product life cycles o Life cycle assessment  Method to evaluate environmental impact of product through all  stages of life cycle  Inventory analysis o Inputs and outputs of energy, material and  pollutants  Impact analysis o Environmental, economic, health, social, and  cultural impacts of inputs and outputs  Improvement analysis o Opportunities to reduce impacts   Mitigating Global Warming  Ways to reduce global warming:  Fossil Fuel  o Changing type of fossil fuel   Coal vs. natural gas o Carbon capture and storage (CCS)  Capture CO2 and store—instead of directing fumes up into the air,  direct it into pipes that go into the ground   Renewable Energy  Nuclear Energy   Biostorage o Storing carbon in forests and soil  o Plant trees   Carbon neutral—not generating CO2 o Reduce carbon footprint   Improve efficiency  o Carbon offsets  Plant trees, develop renewable energy   Adapting to Global Warming o Committed warming = even if we were to stop all emissions immediately,  some warming would still occur – inevitable change  Drier climate and drought are more likely to occur in regions  where water is already in short supply and is often a source of  political conflict  Water supply  Agriculture  Increased rainfall and flooding  Agriculture  Infrastructure  Increasing heat  Crop losses  Fire   Patterns of storms o Coastal areas at risk  Rising sea level o Coastal regions in danger  Regional difference o Capacity to adapt not evenly distributed o Wealthy countries have the resources to make adjustments that minimize  effects   Mitigation and adaptation policies o How can future costs be compared to present costs? o Robert Socolow estimates: o Cost of adaptation:  Move from business as usual to sustainable world   1­2% of GDP  cost of damages of business as usual   more than 4% of gdp  2009 third world climate conference, U.N. Secretary general Ban  Ki­Moon – “the cost of inaction today will be far greater than the  cost of action tomorrow. Not just for future generations, but for  this generation, too”.   Some policymakers –co2 emissions could be cut significantly by increased taxed  on gasoline and other fuels  Policy alternatives o Regulations  Rules to reduce CO2e  Corporate average fuel economy (CAFÉ)—current standard for  automobiles is 27.5 mpg  This will increase to 35 mpg by 2020 o Economic incentives  Tax credits—some power plants may purchase credits from other  utilities whose CO2 is below the cap  Cap and trade—sets a standard for the level of CO2 emissions  allowed to produce by each power plant   Agreeing on the facts o Consensus among nations is critical  International Global Change Policy o Earth Summit—the first international step to reduce greenhouse emissions o Kyoto protocol  Side notes  Sulfur dioxide released from volcanic eruptions cools the atmosphere   El Nino is an oscillation of ocean currents in the Pacific ocean   Most abundant greenhouse gas is Water Vapor   The most common source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is fossil  fuel burning   Almost 75% of earths fresh water is contained in snow and ice  Sea levels rise because of ice melt and thermal expansion of water  Committed warming is warming that will occur no matter what  Chapter 9 Air Quality  The killer Smog Case Study  Deadly air pollution in Donora, Pennsylvania, 1948 o Zinc smelting factory, where smog is common  Weather conditions trapped smog for days  20 died and thousands became sick  Led to the air pollution act of 1955 and clean air act of 1967  Pollution  Air quality  o Gasses and small particles in atmosphere that influence ecosystems or  human wellbeing  Air pollutions   Gasses or particles that are high enough concentrations to harm humans,  organisms, or structures  Gasses of atmosphere: o Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), argon (Ar) are over 99% of the atmosphere  Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) o Chemicals that vaporize into the air o Wide range of chemicals o Natural or anthropogenic  Aerosols  o Cause clouds and fog   Primary Air pollutants  Chemicals or particles directly emitted from identifiable source  The elemental mercury released by combustion and volcanic eruptions  Carbon monozide and sulfur dioxide that are released when fossil fuels burn  The chloroflourocarbons that are released from various source  Pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere by diffusion, convection, and wind  patterns  Convections causes pollutants to disperse more rapidly. Results from differences  in gas density caused by differences in temperature  Air temp decreases with increasing altitude  


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