American Revolutions: Week of April 5
American Revolutions: Week of April 5 HIST 0848-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Neoconservatives o What is neoconservative ideology? o Who did neoconservative thinking influence the reactions of the bush administration on 9/11? The Ford Administration: Donald Rumsfeld: 1974 ford brings him in to be White house Chief of staff (then later another position found on the slide) Dick Cheney: brought in by ford, W Bush’s eventual vice president. Conservative Foreign Policy Ideas in the 1970s o Believe that the US is weak militarily to the SU o Demanded a build up of the US military in both conventional and nuclear capacities o Worries shown around the 1976 scandal around the “Team B” report Attack on CIA One author: Paul Wolfowitz Reagan’s Foreign Policy o Focus on projecting US strength, rebuilding US military Aggressive rhetoric aimed at the Soviet Union 1.2 Trillion Dollars Defense spending Clear ideas of whom the US should and should not support o New military projects Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)—antiballistic Missile Shield (“Star Wars”). This is an example of a kind of “crazy” Reagan idea. This is prohibitively expensive, there is no way of knowing if it’s actually realizable, and it violates international treaties. o Tensions between the US and SU rise; Reagan is partaking in the ideological rhetoric of the SU being the “bad guys” and US the “good guys” o He moves against SU allies in the developing world: Reagan Doctrine o US will support any anticommunist movement wherever they battle the SU or SU backed governments o Large focus on AntiCommunist guerillas Afghanistan: support for Mujahedeen Nicaragua: Covert support for “Contras”: opponents of the socialist Sandinista government Jeanne Kirkpatrick, Dictatorship and Double Standards. IranContra Affair o 198284: Boland Amendment o 86: US press discovers that highranking members of the Reagan administration had continued to fund the Contras by selling American weaponry to Iran additional deal: Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran, so that a terrorist organization called Hezbollah in Lebanon would release a handful of US hostages that it held o IranContra showed a strong disregard for Congressional authority and US law among Reagan administration The end of the Cold War o The end of the Cold War is for a conglomeration of reasons o Economic decline in the SU and its satellites states o Globalization o ReaganGorbachev summit meetings 1987 intermediate Nuclear forces treaty o 198991: Mass protests in SU, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, etc. Collapse of these states, 1991 collapse of the SU New World Order o Identity problems for many cold war institutions The Gulf War o 1990: Saddam Hussein invades Iraq’s southern neighbor, Kuwait o US president George H.W. Bush opposed Hussein Gathered a coalition of 34 countries who were willing to aid the US Also: mandate from the UN security council authorizing the use of force if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait Saudi Arabia as a main staging area. Gulf War 1991 o Massive bombing of Iraqi and Kuwait cities, followed by a ground invasion (gulf war) o American troops stopped once Iraqi troops had withdrawn from Kuwait o Heavy economic sanctions on Iraq o Alienation of radical Wahabism groups (al Qaeda) The Wolfowitz Doctrine o Defense planning guidance for the 199499 fiscal years, authored by Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz o How does Wolfowitz want US foreign policy to proceed? The 1990’s o Clinton election 1992: “it’s the economy, stupid” o 1998: US bombing of Iraq (operation Desert Fox) o 2000 Terrorism in the 1990’s o 1993: world trade center bombing o 1995 Oklahoma city bombing Clinton appoints national coordinator for security and counterterrorism o 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, Riyadh o 1998: US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania Clinton orders air strike on al Qaeda camp in Afghanistan
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