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American Revolutions: Week of April 5

by: Katrina Salamon

American Revolutions: Week of April 5 HIST 0848-002

Marketplace > Temple University > History > HIST 0848-002 > American Revolutions Week of April 5
Katrina Salamon

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About this Document

These are the notes for American Revolutions in the week of April 5.
American Revolutions
Silke Zoller
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.


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Date Created: 04/11/16
 Neoconservatives  o What is neoconservative ideology? o Who did neoconservative thinking influence the reactions of the bush  administration on 9/11?  The Ford Administration:  Donald Rumsfeld:  1974 ford brings him in to be White house Chief of staff (then  later another position found on the slide)  Dick Cheney: brought in by ford, W Bush’s eventual vice president.   Conservative Foreign Policy Ideas in the 1970s o Believe that the US is weak militarily to the SU o Demanded a build up of the US military in both conventional and nuclear  capacities o Worries shown around the 1976 scandal around the “Team B” report  Attack on CIA  One author: Paul Wolfowitz   Reagan’s Foreign Policy o Focus on projecting US strength, re­building US military  Aggressive rhetoric aimed at the Soviet Union  1.2 Trillion Dollars Defense spending  Clear ideas of whom the US should and should not support o New military projects  Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)—anti­ballistic Missile Shield  (“Star Wars”). This is an example of a kind of “crazy” Reagan  idea. This is prohibitively expensive, there is no way of knowing if it’s actually realizable, and it violates international treaties.  o Tensions between the US and SU rise; Reagan is partaking in the  ideological rhetoric of the SU being the “bad guys” and US the “good  guys” o He moves against SU allies in the developing world:  Reagan Doctrine o US will support any anticommunist movement wherever they battle the  SU or SU backed governments o Large focus on Anti­Communist guerillas  Afghanistan: support for Mujahedeen  Nicaragua: Covert support for “Contras”: opponents of the socialist Sandinista government  Jeanne Kirkpatrick, Dictatorship and Double Standards.   Iran­Contra Affair o 1982­84: Boland Amendment o 86: US press discovers that high­ranking members of the Reagan  administration had continued to fund the Contras  by selling American weaponry to Iran  additional deal: Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran, so  that a terrorist organization called Hezbollah in Lebanon would  release a handful of US hostages that it held o Iran­Contra showed a strong disregard for Congressional authority and US law among Reagan administration   The end of the Cold War o The end of the Cold War is for a conglomeration of reasons o Economic decline in the SU and its satellites states o Globalization o Reagan­Gorbachev summit meetings  1987 intermediate Nuclear forces treaty o 1989­91: Mass protests in SU, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, etc.   Collapse of these states, 1991 collapse of the SU  New World Order o Identity problems for many cold war institutions  The Gulf War o 1990: Saddam Hussein invades Iraq’s southern neighbor, Kuwait o US president George H.W. Bush opposed Hussein  Gathered a coalition of 34 countries who were willing to aid the  US  Also: mandate from the UN security council authorizing the use of  force if Iraq did not withdraw from Kuwait  Saudi Arabia as a main staging area.   Gulf War 1991 o Massive bombing of Iraqi and Kuwait cities, followed by a ground  invasion (gulf war) o American troops stopped once Iraqi troops had withdrawn from Kuwait o Heavy economic sanctions on Iraq o Alienation of radical Wahabism groups (al Qaeda)  The Wolfowitz Doctrine o Defense planning guidance for the 1994­99 fiscal years, authored by  Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz o How does Wolfowitz want US foreign policy to proceed?  The 1990’s o Clinton election 1992: “it’s the economy, stupid” o 1998: US bombing of Iraq (operation Desert Fox) o 2000  Terrorism in the 1990’s o 1993: world trade center bombing o 1995 Oklahoma city bombing  Clinton appoints national coordinator for security and  counterterrorism o 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, Riyadh o 1998: US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania  Clinton orders air strike on al Qaeda camp in Afghanistan  


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