GEOL 101: Groundwater
GEOL 101: Groundwater 101-017
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
GEOL 101: Groundwater I. Groundwater Percolates downwards until it reaches a zone where all the pore spaces are saturated with water Aquifer geologic unit (reservoir) capable of storing and transmitting water in sufficient quantities to supply wells o Needs high porosity and high permeability Unconfined Aquifer The permeable layer extends to the surface No blockage Confined Aquifer The permeable layer is overlain and underlain by less permeable layers It is block by permeable layers above and below it. II. Affecting Groundwater Condition and type of surface materials o Determines whether water can penetrate the surface Vegetation o Stabilizes soil. Returns water to atmosphere though transpiration Topography o Promotes run off as surface water rather than infiltration Steep slopes v. flat land Precipitation o Determines amount of water available for replenishing the groundwater system Porosity – percentage of pore space relative to the total volume of soil, rock, or sediment Measure of the potential volume of eater that can be stored Sandstone is a rock with the highest porosity Factors o Grain size Absolute (boulder v. clay) Relative variation (sorting) o Grain shape Absolute (rounded v. angular Relative variation o Degree of cementation Function of diagenesis Permeability – measure of the ability of a rock or sediment to transmit a fluid Depends on the interconnection of pore spaces Generally increases with porosity, but not always III . Water table Top of the saturated come of groundwater Level to which water will rise in a hole o Mining hole Level to which water will rise in an unconfined aquifer Typically drops in dry season and rises in wet season IV. Groundwater inputs and outputs Recharge – infiltration of water, mostly from precipitation, into the earth’s surface Discharge – flow of water from the subsurface to the surface o EX) Spring Cone of depression – a local depression in the water table, usually a result of water withdrawal. Sample Exam Questions The term “juvenile water” refers to water that. a. Was brought to Earth by meteorites b. Was derived from the mantle c. Appeared on the earth’s surface at the time of condensation d. Is very young and childish Layers that store and transmit groundwater are called A. Aquicludes B. Aquifers C. Influent streams D. Unsaturated zones Which of the following unfractured rocks has the highest porosity? a. Granite b. Sandstone c. Schist d. Shale Sinkholes are a possible danger in regions underlain by what type of bedrock? a. Granite b. Limestone c. Sandstone d. Shale
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