Chapter 11 notes
Chapter 11 notes Psychology 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Personality • The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that make us unique as individuals • Helps account for the consistency in our behavior over time • The study of personality involves attempts to describe and explain the factors that make us unique • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory o Freud’s theory of personality that holds that personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts o In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders; their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes • Freud’s 3 levels of consciousness o Conscious: the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness o Preconscious: the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention o Unconscious: the part of the mind that lies outside the range of ordinary awareness and that holds troubling or unacceptable urges, impulses, memories, and ideas • Structure of personality o Id: pleasure principle § The psychic structure existing in the unconscious that contains our basic animal drives and instinctual impulses o Ego: reality principle § The psychic structure that attempts to balance the instinctual demands of the id with social realities and expectations o Superego: moral principle § The psychic structure that corresponds to an internal moral guardian or conscious • Conflict o Ego holds the urges in check with reality o Id gratifies urges immediately o Superego holds urges in check with morality • Anxiety and defense mechanisms o Defense mechanisms: the reality-distorting strategies of the ego to prevent awareness of anxiety-evoking or troubling ideas or impulses o Major defense mechanisms: § Repression: burying distressing or unacceptable impulses and wishes in the unconscious (motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material) • Ex: a young girl forgets that she was sexually abused by her uncle as a child § Denial: the failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge • Ex: substance abusers admitting they have a problem § Reaction formation: behaving in a way that is the opposite of one’s true wishes or desires in order to keep these repressed • Ex: a woman who fears her sexual urges, becomes a religious zealot § Rationalization: the use of self-justification to explain unacceptable behavior, impulses, or ideas • Ex: a woman explains she ate the entire chocolate cake so that it wouldn’t spoil in the summer heat § Projection: the projection of one’s own unacceptable impulses, wishes, or urges onto another person • Ex: a man with a strong desire to have an extramarital accuses his wife of having one § Sublimation: the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests • Ex: a man with strong sexual urges becomes an artist who paints nudes § Regression: an individual, usually under high levels of stress, reverts into a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development • Ex: a woman returns home to mother every time she has a big argument with her husband § Displacement: unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulse is transferred to an object or person that is safer or less threatening than the original object of the impulse • Ex: a man redirects anger from his boss to his wife and children • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory o Erogenous zones: parts of the child’s body that brings physical and psychological pleasure when stimulated o Fixation: occurs when one becomes “stuck” at one of the stages before moving on to the next one, failing to fully resolve a stage can lead to later-life personality characteristics associated with the stage of fixation o Oral stage: birth to 18 months old § Erogenous zone is the mouth (sucking/biting) § Conflict is weaning from breast or bottle § Too little/much gratification can lead to oral fixations o Anal stage: 18-36 months § Erogenous zone is anal activity § Sexual pleasure through the ability to control elimination § Conflict arises over issue of toilet training § Anal-retentive vs. anal-expulsive personality o Phallic stage: age 3-6 years § Erogenous zone is the phallic region § Core conflict is the Oedipus complex § Freud’s followers called female version of conflict the Electra complex § Boys develop castration anxiety § Girls experience penis envy o Latency stage: age 6-12 years § Sexual impulses remain dormant o Genital stage: puberty to adulthood § Attraction to opposite gender § Sexual energies expressed through sexual intercourse, marriage, child bearing
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