Forensic Anthropology Week of April 7th 2016
Forensic Anthropology Week of April 7th 2016 Anth 310
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Intro to Forensic Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Forensic Anthropology Ancestry Determination April 7 2016 Why Determine Ancestry? ● Average person perceives patterned variability and classifies themselves accordingly ● As such, forensic anthropologists are tasked with making a determination of race ○ Helps establish identity ○ Narrows down number of antemortem records searched Ancestry Estimation ● Climate and diet dependent ● Most visible in the cranium, particularly the midfacial region ● Remains may indicate a different ancestry than how the individual identified him/herself ● Rise of various populations in the US lends itself to genetic admixture (multiple races mixing) Determining Ancestry ● Cranial and postcranial elements ● Combination of morphology and metrics ○ Anthroposcopy: visual assessment ■ Qualification of bone’s shape ■ Observation of a feature presence or absence ■ Degree of expression of a feature ○ Osteometry: measurements from skull and long bones to quantify the visual characteristics Biological Groups Five main groups ● White ● Black ● Asian ● Native American ● Hispanic Reduce to 3 Biological Groups ● European/Caucasoid ● African/Negroid ● Asian/Mongoloid Cranial MorphologyMongoloid (Asian) ● Comparatively flatface ○ Little facial prognathism ○ Forward projecting, flared zygomatic ● Round orbits ● Moderate nasal aperture (moderate nose width) ● Tented nasal bones (triangular) ● Moderate nasal spine ● Rounded palate ● Shovelshaped incisors ● Keeled Skull (comes to more of a point) Cranial MorphologyNegroid (African) Forensic Anthropology Ancestry Determination April 7 2016 ● Projecting face ○ Anterior facial projection ● Rectangular orbits ● Broad nasal aperture (widest) ● Domed nasal bones (round) ● Small, dull nasal spine ● Nasal guttering ( the nasal passage gets dug in like a gutter above the teeth without a crest) ● Rectangular palate ● Wide interorbital breadth ● Postpregmatic depression (a depression along the saginal suture) Cranial MorphologyCaucasoid (European) ● Pointed face ○ Retreated zygomatics ● Sloping orbits ● Very narrow nasal aperture (smallest) ● Steepled pinched nasal bones (comes to a narrow point) ● Sharp Nasal sill ( the nasal passage gets dug in above the teeth with a crest causing a shelf like a sill) ● Projecting Nasal spine ● Parabolic palate ● Minimal interorbital breath Post Cranial Morphology ● Generally a reflection of body shape ● Typically seen best in the femur Mongoloid Negroid Caucasoid Curved Relatively Straight Intermediate (Head of the Femur) Considerably torsion Little torsion of head Intermediate at Neck & neck Max curveture in Max curvature in Max curvature of distal 1/3 proximal 1/3 midshaft Osteometry ● Relies on: ○ Descriminant function formulae derived from samples of known ancestry ● Defined landmarks ○ 7795% correct, depending on methods used Forensic Anthropology Ancestry Determination April 7 2016 General Stature Thoughts ● Height increases until adulthood and decreases with senility ● In any population, there is considerable variation in stature ● Females tend to be shorter than males ● Twin studies have shown that 90% of stature is genetic Key Concepts ● Strong correlation between bone length and stature ● Accuracy: getting as close to the mean as possible ● Precision: repeatability< getting the same measurement or close to it as possible ● May not be accurate Fully Method 1956 ● Estimate stature from elements that make up living height ○ Skull (basionbregma) ○ Vertebral body heights (c2l5 & S1) ○ Bicondylar femur length ○ Maximum length of tibia ○ Talus and calcaneus height (when articulated) ○ Need all elements present ○ Stature= sum of measurements + soft tissue correction factor ○ Soft tissue correction factor ■ If stature is <153.5cm, add 10.0 cm ■ If stature is 153.6165.4 cm, add 10.5cm ■ If stature is >165.4cm, add 11.5cm Trotter and Gleser 1952 & 1958 ● Over 5000 individuals in sample ● Developed regression formulae for long bones ● You must know: ○ Sex of the individual ○ Ancestry of the individual ■ Example ● Sex assessment = Male; ancestry estimation = Negroid ● Ulna measurement = 31 cm ● Stature = (3.26 * 31) +79.29 ● Convert cm to feet and inches ○ Trotter’s measurement according to publication: maximum length including malleolus ○ Trotter’s measurement taken during study: maximum length excluding malleolus ○ Result: Avoid tibia formula from this study! Adjustments to Stature ● Stature loss due to advanced age ○ Compression of vertebral bodies begin around age 45 ○ Reported stature vs. measured stature ■ Driver’s license Forensic Anthropology Ancestry Determination April 7 2016 ● Males typically overestimate by ½’: females underestimate by ¼’ ■ Daily variation ● Can add or subtract up to 1’ depending on time of day ■ Cadaver stature ● Appx. 2.5cm greater than standing stature ■ Shrinkage of remains due to decomposition, weathering or burning. Secular Trends ● Slow change in stature prior to 1850 ● Marked decrease in stature from 18501900 ● Recovery (increase in stature after 1900) Other Methods ● Metacarpals ○ Meadows & Jantz, 1992 ● Metatarsals ○ Byers et al., 1989 ● Fragmented remains ○ Correlation of bone segments to Total bone length
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