New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Forensic Anthropology Week of April 7th 2016

by: Danielle Johnson

Forensic Anthropology Week of April 7th 2016 Anth 310

Marketplace > Edinboro University of Pennsylvania > anthropology, evolution, sphr > Anth 310 > Forensic Anthropology Week of April 7th 2016
Danielle Johnson
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Determination of Ancestry.
Intro to Forensic Anthropology
Dr. Barbian
Class Notes
forensic anthropology, Anthropology
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Forensic Anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.

Similar to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Forensic Anthropology Week of April 7th 2016


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/11/16
Forensic Anthropology   Ancestry Determination  April 7 2016  Why Determine Ancestry?  ● Average person perceives patterned variability and classifies themselves accordingly  ● As such, forensic anthropologists are tasked with making a determination of race  ○ Helps establish identity  ○ Narrows down number of antemortem records searched  Ancestry Estimation  ● Climate and diet dependent  ● Most visible in the cranium, particularly the midfacial region  ● Remains may indicate a different ancestry than how the individual identified him/herself  ● Rise of various populations in the US lends itself to genetic admixture (multiple races  mixing)  Determining Ancestry  ● Cranial and post­cranial elements  ● Combination of morphology and metrics  ○ Anthroposcopy: visual assessment  ■ Qualification of bone’s shape  ■ Observation of a feature presence or absence  ■ Degree of expression of a feature  ○ Osteometry: measurements from skull and long bones to quantify the visual  characteristics  Biological Groups  Five main groups  ● White  ● Black   ● Asian  ● Native American  ● Hispanic  Reduce to 3 Biological Groups  ● European/Caucasoid  ● African/Negroid  ● Asian/Mongoloid  Cranial Morphology­Mongoloid (Asian)  ● Comparatively flat­face  ○ Little facial prognathism  ○ Forward projecting, flared zygomatic  ● Round orbits  ● Moderate nasal aperture (moderate nose width)  ● Tented nasal bones (triangular)  ● Moderate nasal spine  ● Rounded palate  ● Shovel­shaped incisors  ● Keeled Skull (comes to more of a point)  Cranial Morphology­Negroid (African)  Forensic Anthropology   Ancestry Determination  April 7 2016  ● Projecting face  ○ Anterior facial projection  ● Rectangular orbits  ● Broad nasal aperture (widest)  ● Domed nasal bones (round)  ● Small, dull nasal spine  ● Nasal guttering ( the nasal passage gets dug in like a gutter above the teeth without a  crest)  ● Rectangular palate  ● Wide inter­orbital breadth  ● Post­pregmatic depression (a depression along the saginal suture)   Cranial Morphology­Caucasoid (European)  ● Pointed face  ○ Retreated zygomatics  ● Sloping orbits  ● Very narrow nasal aperture (smallest)  ● Steepled pinched nasal bones (comes to a narrow point)  ● Sharp Nasal sill ( the nasal passage gets dug in above the teeth with a crest causing a  shelf like a sill)  ● Projecting Nasal spine   ● Parabolic palate  ● Minimal inter­orbital breath    Post Cranial Morphology  ● Generally a reflection of body shape  ● Typically seen best in the femur        Mongoloid  Negroid  Caucasoid    Curved  Relatively Straight  Intermediate  (Head of the Femur)  Considerably torsion  Little torsion of head Intermediate  at Neck  & neck      Max curveture in  Max curvature in  Max curvature of  distal 1/3  proximal 1/3  midshaft    Osteometry  ● Relies on:  ○ Descriminant function formulae derived from samples of known ancestry  ● Defined landmarks  ○ 77­95% correct, depending on methods used  Forensic Anthropology   Ancestry Determination  April 7 2016  General Stature Thoughts  ● Height increases until adulthood and decreases with senility  ● In any population, there is considerable variation in stature  ● Females tend to be shorter than males  ● Twin studies have shown that 90% of stature is genetic  Key Concepts  ● Strong correlation between bone length and stature   ● Accuracy: getting as close to the mean as possible  ● Precision: repeatability< getting the same measurement or close to it as possible  ● May not be accurate  Fully Method 1956  ● Estimate stature from elements that make up living height  ○ Skull (basion­bregma)  ○ Vertebral body heights (c2­l5 & S1)  ○ Bicondylar femur length  ○ Maximum length of tibia  ○ Talus and calcaneus height (when articulated)  ○ Need all elements present  ○ Stature= sum of measurements + soft tissue correction factor  ○ Soft tissue correction factor  ■ If stature is <153.5cm, add 10.0 cm  ■ If stature is 153.6­165.4 cm, add 10.5cm  ■ If stature is >165.4cm, add 11.5cm  Trotter and Gleser 1952 & 1958  ● Over 5000 individuals in sample  ● Developed regression formulae for long bones  ● You must know:   ○ Sex of the individual   ○ Ancestry of the individual  ■ Example  ● Sex assessment = Male; ancestry estimation = Negroid  ● Ulna measurement = 31 cm  ● Stature = (3.26 * 31) +79.29  ● Convert cm to feet and inches  ○ Trotter’s measurement according to publication: maximum length including  malleolus  ○ Trotter’s measurement taken during study: maximum length excluding malleolus  ○ Result: Avoid tibia formula from this study!  Adjustments to Stature  ● Stature loss due to advanced age  ○ Compression of vertebral bodies begin around age 45  ○ Reported stature vs. measured stature  ■ Driver’s license  Forensic Anthropology   Ancestry Determination  April 7 2016  ● Males typically overestimate by ½’: females underestimate by ¼’  ■ Daily variation   ● Can add or subtract up to 1’ depending on time of day  ■ Cadaver stature  ● Appx. 2.5cm greater than standing stature  ■ Shrinkage of remains due to decomposition, weathering or burning.  Secular Trends  ● Slow change in stature prior to 1850  ● Marked decrease in stature from 1850­1900  ● Recovery (increase in stature after 1900)  Other Methods  ● Metacarpals  ○ Meadows & Jantz, 1992  ● Metatarsals  ○ Byers et al., 1989  ● Fragmented remains  ○ Correlation of bone segments to Total bone length 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.