Concepts week 10 notes
Concepts week 10 notes SCMH 1010 - 002
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SCMH 1010 - 002
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by kmb0095 on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCMH 1010 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Allen Lee Landers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Science in Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
4/1/16 ch.13 Half-Life o Average time for decay of ½ batch of radioactive isotopes o Wide range of half-lives o Cannot predict half-life Every half-life, ensemble or collection, half of it has decayed to some other element Starting with 6 grams of a substance that is known to be radioactive, if we measure the mass remaining after 100 days and 3 grams is remaining, what is the half-life? 1000 days What if the half life were 500 days? 1.5 grams left Radiometric dating o Measure of half-life o Carbon-14 Half-life = 5700 years o Geology Need longer half-lives The Shroud of Turin o Supposedly from the burial shroud of Jesus – Carbon dating dates th th it to the 13 -14 century i.e. towards the end of the crusades (Acre, last crusader town fell in 1291) Use of Potassium-Argon Dating o Carbon dating cannot be used for items older then 50,000 years o Using elements with longer half-time allows dating older fossils o These bones are about 3.7 million years old Nuclear Fission o Fission Splitting of nucleus o Nuclear reactor Extracts energy o Meltdown Fusion o 2 atoms of H combine to form He o some mass converted to energy o ex) sunlight, plasma science in the making o super heavy elements o periodic table: light blue (stable), above lead everything is somewhat unstable, uranium is heaviest on earth that is still radioactive & with a half-life, latest man made element is 122; 92-103ish named after where/what found (America, planets, Madame Curie) thinking more about the nucleus o nuclear waste management the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository was to be a deep geological repository storage facility for spent nuclear reactor fuel and other high level radioactive waste 4/4/16 Chapter 13—The Ultimate Structure of Matter Of what is the Universe made? View the Universe as a Library o Superficial description Fundamental building blocks Books; rules for organization o Basic Words; grammar o Ultimate description Letters; spelling Reductionism o Find Ultimate building blocks o How simplicity gives rise to complexity o Three steps to discover true nature: Thought Experiment Observation The Building Blocks of Matter o The answer to the question: “What are the fundamental building blocks?” changed over time Atom Nuclei and electrons Elementary particles The field of study that deals with determining the ultimate structure of reality is referred to by philosophers as reductionism Discovering Elementary Particles Cosmic Rays o Particles emitted by stars o Used to understand nucleus Found new elementary particles Technology o Detecting elementary particles How do we know they are there? Particles interact with matter and it is this interaction which we detect and observe Particle Accelerators: The Essential Tool o Artificial cosmic rays o Ernest O. Lawrence Cyclotron o Linear accelerator o Synchrotron Technology o The large Hadron collider At Swiss French border 15 miles long accelerates protons to almost speed of light; 7 trillion volt The Science of Life o The accelerators in medicine Cancer treatment Particle accelerators can also provide proton beams, which can produce proton-rich medical isotopes as opposed to the neutron-rich ones made in fission reactors The Elementary Particle Zoo Science in the Making o The discovery of antimatter Carl Anderson’s experiment (1930’s)—positron Quarks and Leptons o Quark Fundamental building blocks of hadrons Fractional electrical charge Only 6 kinds o Leptons 6 kinds Outside nucleus Properties of Quarks o Quarks Proton = 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron = 2 down quarks + 1 up quark 1994—announced the top quark was experimentally confirmed o Quark Confinement Individual quarks No experimental isolation of a quark Speculation is that they existed briefly after Big Bang; once they are inside a particle, they cannot be pried lose Elementary Quarks Difficult to isolate The Four Fundamental Forces 4/6/16 Which of the following forces is NOT going to be involved when two electrons approach each other and interact? Ch.14 The Stars Chapter outline: The nature of the stars The anatomy of stars The variety of stars The life cycles of stars The nature of the stars o Astronomy The oldest science o Star Fusion reactor in space Ball of gas o All stars have a beginning and an ending Measuring the stars with telescopes and satellites o Electromagnetic radiation o Measurement of photons Wavelength Intensity Direction Variation Orbiting observations o Great observatories program Hubble Space Telescope Spitzer Infared Space Telescope Not the same view as with a naked eye, can see where is the coolest and hottest Chandra X-Ray Observatory By looking at X-Rays, can see what atomic processes are happening Structure of the sun o Structure (starting in the center going outwards) Stellar core Convection zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona o Solar wind Stream of particles The science of life o Why is the visible spectrum visible? If you look at where the sun’s energy is, most of the energy is in an area right where our eyes can see The sun’s energy source: fusion o Sun’s energy source Historical Current Hydrogen o Fusion 3 steps hydrogen burning P + P D + e + neutrino + energy D + P 3He + photon + energy 3 3 He + He 4He + 2protons + photon + energy Life expectancy 11 billion years In the outer region of the sun, energy moves by convection and then into space the Sun’s energy comes to Earth by radiation the ongoing process of science o the solar neutrino problem: o discrepancies in the measured amount of solar neutrinos and what the Sun’s interior models predict o since neutrinos have mass and come in three types; previous tests could only detect the electron-type neutrinos. The latest experiment found all the neutrinos and solved the problem the variety of stars o differences color brightness distance absolute brightness o energy output o luminosity apparent brightness o behavior total mass age the astronomical distance scale o time as distance light-years o measurement triangulation Cepheid variable The hertzprung-russel diagram o Star groupings Main-sequence stars Red giants White dwarfs 4/8/16 The astronomical distance scale o Time as distance Light-years o Measurement Triangulation Cepheid variable The hertzprung-russel diagram o Star groupings Main sequence stars Red giants White dwarfs The life cycles of stars o The eagle nebula Formation of the planetary system The main sequence and the death of stars o Stars much less massive than the sun Brown dwarf Glows 100 billion years No change in size, temp, energy output o Stars about the mass of the sun Hydrogen burning at faster rate Move off main sequence Helium burning Red giant Begin collapse White dwarf The life cycle of the sun o Very large stars Successive collapses and burnings Iron core Catastrophic collapse Supernova The interior of a large charge Star explosion Neutron stars and pulsars o Neutron star Dense and small, residue of super nova High rotation rate Little light o Pulsar Special neutron star Electromagnetic radiation End state of supernova Black holes o Result of collapse large star o Nothing escapes from surface o Cannot see them See impact on other stars Detect x-rays, gamma rays Generation of the chemical elements o Universe began with light elements o All objects made of atoms formed in the giant stars
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