Lecture 1: Early US History
Lecture 1: Early US History HI 1063
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by PaxEirene on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HI 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Alyssa Warrick in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Early US History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
15 January 2014 LESSON IDEA The people who first came to the American continent established diverse civilizations, developed extensive trading networks, and actively shaped their environments to meet their needs. Native’s isolation led to their demise when Europeans driven by religious and economic reasons landed in the 15th century. Our history is impacted by the location of America on the planet. available sunlight that allows us to grow cotton and other crops. Imagine what MS would be like now if we were not able to grow cotton due to lack of sunlight. It’s not where America is in the world, but the things that happen. Rocky Mountains provide gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc and minerals such as coal. Lakes, and rivers affect animal population in and around the water. Ice age began about 70K; ended about 50K years ago People travelled over the bering land bridge following the hunting: bison and mammoths, etc. Climate change starts affecting the game and the people that depend on it for food. Big game started to die off, so people had to start hunting small games such as rabbits and squirrels. Archaic period invented “atlatl” to help hunt. Began adapting environment to meet their needs fire, agriculture fire used to control the land and optimize it for their usage (managing the forests) fire used to control animals and insects, especially deer, ticks, and wolves Europeans that landed at Jamestown would have mentioned how the forests look like parks. Genderbased roles: Men would hunt while women and children would gather berries and herbs. People inhabiting N.America prior to European settlement and involvement: Eastern Woodland, Plains, Desert, Pacific Coast Eastern Woodland People (east of the Mississippi River, including Canada and Mexico) “Mound Builders” mounds used for religious purposes: VIP might get a personal mound with possessions, goods, and etc. similar to Pharaohs buried in egypt. NonVIP people would get buried in the public burial areas. Agriculturalists created tropical flint (1st maize developed. Most abundant in Americas, most predominant diet item; precursor to modern corn) Mississippians introduced pole bean, developed eastern flint maize, grew squash Agricultural urban centers (such as Cahokia) of up to 40,000 people living and farming Communal land owners (Everyone had a stake in survival) Family size determined how much land the family would be responsible for. Corn, beans, and squash (three sisters of agriculture) would be planted together. Europeans thought it to be “a mess” but it is a very scientific since different minerals would be leached from the soil and one of the other plants would replace them. Political alliances (confederacies) created between bands of people with common interests New religious celebrations and festivals starting being celebrated. dancing, fasting, and sweat lodges to purify themselves for the gods Green Corn Festival give thanks to the corn gods/goddess Mississippians Algonquians (New York to Virginia) (Pocahontas of the Powhatan tribe) Iroquois (Eastern Woodland) (Great Lakes area) Religious / Ceremonial hunting No distinction between living things. They considered themselves part of the living world and so must give thanks to the deer providing the food or they would be punished by the gods. Mississippi River Valley peoples had over 600 different but distinct dialects For example, when Hernando DeSoto shows up, he has an indian translator that is able to translate across barriers enough to get by. Not a lot of knowledge of metallurgy in regards to developing weapons from metal C.Columbus mentioned this in his letter to the K.&Q. of Spain. (1.1) A statue of Pocahontas was erected in Jamestown, Virginia in 1907 and she is dressed as a Plains Indian instead of the Algonquian. Plains Indians Horses introduced by the Spanish (“caballo”) Dramatically change the way they live: able to travel further to hunt, better hunting, become more nomadic. Since the men are no longer close to the land to defend their territory, “Uncle Sam” is able to come in and takes over the land. Desert Indians Navajo, Anasazi Cliff dwellers (Mesa Verde) Chaco Canyon one of the largest communities with over 800 rooms Pacific Coast Indians Over 106 tribes in modern California that are recognized today. Beautiful art, very colourful. This is where the totem poles came from Major fishing (salmon, whales, etc), seafood, freshwater fish