Chapter 13 Notes
Chapter 13 Notes JOUR 3190
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Kyla Brinkley JOUR 3190 Spring 2015 Chapter 13 Notes Converging with Other Emerging Media I. Introduction a. Integrating print, broadcast, online distribution of news in the same newsroom i. Convergence isn’t limited to this ii. social media have found a niche in almost every newsroom b. text only media c. full motion video d. digital TV multicasts e. digital signage f. 2 ways to assess how content should be gathered, edited, and delivered through emerging media i. start with medium itself ii. start with story itself g. important thing is to look at dimensions of each story and how the story can best be communicated through each medium h. the field of convergent journalism is to new to focus on any one medium in particular i. think in terms of combinations of media II. Apps a. Aka application: computer programs designed to deliver content to mobile devices b. Apps are generally created to deliver content from a specific media org c. Audience i. Fastest growing type of computer program ii. Audience reachable includes everyone who owns device (smartphone, tablet, etc.) d. Timing i. Apps are a “pull” technology ii. Usage patterns vary with type of app iii. As with websites etc., there is a debate regarding whether routine content should be updated continually or on a schedule iv. Breaking news is posted as soon as it’s ready e. Editorial Considerations i. Content can be as narrow or as broad as you like ii. App should have a way to share content 1. Bookmark or save content? iii. Shouldn’t try to keep the user only on the publisher’s site 1. Let users follow links f. Format Considerations i. Theoretically, apps can deliver any type of media that can be transmitted over the Internet, but most apps are created to deliver specific types of content ii. Consider the size of the screen that will be used to display info 1. Less detail on smaller screen 2. Font size g. How They Work i. Creating apps takes specialized programming/skills ii. Can be programmed to emulate almost ay kind of info delivery system iii. Standards 1. Program must be designed for the operating system used by the device 2. App must be selected/downloaded by the user (must promote it_ 3. Info has to be available to be downloaded regularly upon user demand h. Other Issues i. Have multimedia challenge ii. Ex: apple devices didn’t support Flash III. Digital Signage a. Signs are one of the most ubiquitous form of print media b. Almost all forms of signage can now be replaced by electronic displays: digital signage c. Allow communication of almost any type of visual message d. Used for advertising/commercial messages but news orgs use them too e. Electronic billboards f. Information must be brief: 10 words or fewer g. Most effective to transmit headlines h. Audience i. Depends on location and number of people who can see display ii. Placement tries to maximize viewing iii. People pay more attention to breaking news or if it’s related to the specific environment iv. Used to drive traffic to your other outlets v. What type of message will get attention? i. Timing i. Info is updated continually ii. Some have groupings of info that rotate in a set cycle j. Editorial Considerations i. Amount of info conveyed is limited ii. Smaller type makes people have to be closer to read the sign iii. Usually provide 2 headlines or a tease for another medium 1. Has to be specific: capture reader’s interest 2. Avoid ambiguity k. Format Considerations i. Word limit also restricts formal decisions ii. Color and font should be simple (sans-serif) iii. Be selective with putting other media on the sign—can’t be distracting l. How It Works i. Digital signs are connected to a computer that controls the display of the board ii. The small computer might use Internet or phone lines to download content from a larger host computer (server) 1. Server lets news staff upload stories or can be programmed automatically iii. Decide how often to rotate headlines m. Other Issues i. Can be expensive to own or rent digital signs (such as those at airports or billboard-style signs) ii. Well placed signs can attract extra traffic to website etc. iii. Signs can be outlet to sell ads iv. It is a new medium with increasing presence IV. RSS a. Really simple syndication b. Rich site summary c. Internet tool to push content to users who have selected to receive that content d. Content is delivered directly to an application on the user’s computer, website, or twitter or fb e. Audience i. RSS users are growing in number ii. Becoming standard in web browsers iii. Subscribers asked to view the info but still have control over whether they actually read it f. Timing i. RSS item is often generated automatically by the publishing system ii. Timing is not independent iii. Should this be done on a regular schedule? 1. People have distinct times of media consumption so you have to help condition them iv. Balance habits of audience with availability of new info v. Exception is always breaking news g. Editorial Considerations i. Editorial content is largely determined by Web publishing or blogging software 1. Settings to send full or abbreviated RSS feed 2. Some services send both ii. Follow tags and news feeds h. Format Considerations i. Any kind of info can be distributed ii. Be consistent in providing and updating desired info i. How It Works i. Required 2 components 1. RSS reader either online or as software on computer 2. Website that indexes content when it is updated ii. When you subscribe, your browser automatically checks the website for updated info j. Other Issues i. Represents an enhancement to information delivery ii. Allows any info to alert users when new info is available iii. Has potential to drive additional traffic to a website iv. Primary barrier is the users themselves 1. Most people don’t take the time to subscribe, limiting effectiveness V. Email Notification a. Email is so 2005 b. Email is a powerful communications tool, esp. in business/professional communities c. More choices in the types and length of content you can deliver d. First, decide what type of service you’re providing e. Has to get past spam filters f. Take into consideration amount being read on small screens g. Email subscription is like newspaper subscription: can choose when to read it h. Danger: don’t overdo messages i. Email alerts/periodic summaries can position you as a valuable news source and increase website traffic j. Audience i. Almost everyone who can receive your news stories through other media can receive them via email ii. Email lets you effectively segment audience, delivering to each person only the types of news they’re interested in iii. Decide degree to which 1. You will let people select specific types of stories to receive 2. The amount of work your staff can put into customizing/delivering these stories iv. Decide on frequency of delivery and who decides what stories to include k. Timing i. Breaking news should be delivered asap ii. Can’t bombard inboxes with each development either iii. Do basic story info: 5W’s and H iv. Then some updates v. Delivery timing of other stories depends on the type of news vi. Timing also depends on objectives l. Editorial Considerations i. Email works best for brief summaries & headlines ii. Stories should reflect interests of the reader iii. Keep stories short iv. Provide link to web page or other source for additional info m. Format Considerations i. Decisions 1. Length of stories 2. Appearance of message ii. Be brief and link iii. Simplest email message consists of plain text, but can also format iv. A lot of formatting can help branding but can also make file size too big and make it seem like spam n. How it Works i. Email summaries are generated automatically by different services ii. Most format options won’t appear in your RSS feed iii. Templates are similar to web pages o. Other Issues i. Must include info on how to unsubscribe and include a street address for your organization ii. How you let people subscribe can cause problems: identity verification iii. Don’t want people to subscribe as someone else or receive emails they don’t want VI. Text Messaging a. Phones are versatile b. Good to deliver breaking news or updates that can be easily summarized c. Sms d. Less than 150 characters including spaces e. Audience i. Younger users ii. Interrupt daily activities: make the news worth it iii. User must be able to easily to opt-in or unsubscribe iv. Consider demographics of recipients f. Timing i. 2 options 1. breaking news 2. summary of content at regular intervals ii. the key is that the user wants and expects the info g. Editorial Considerations i. Newsrooms are experimenting with sending different types of stories at different times and in different formats ii. Usually short breaking news stories are best for texting 1. Storm warnings 2. Major accidents 3. Traffic problems iii. Can strengthen user’s reliance on your news operation iv. Feed from newsroom 1. Stock prices 2. Sports scores 3. Entertainment news v. Promotional/cross-branding h. Format Considerations i. Any type or length of message can be distributed using text messages ii. Usually 150-character max: best used for delivering headlines/short summaries iii. Extreme inverted pyramid iv. News text parts 1. Headline to get attention 2. Summary of story 3. Info on where additional info is available i. How It Works i. One of the easiest ways to deliver news ii. You can also send text at the same time a story is uploaded to website iii. People subscribe by signing up on our website iv. Be careful not to overuse it j. Other Issues i. People can use camera to send photos directly to our newsroom 1. Newsroom must be able to receive texts/pics 2. Public must be aware of the capability and the address/number to send content 3. Newsroom must have set procedures to verify content ii. Ownership of user submitted content can be an issue iii. People already receiving content from the newsroom are ore likely to send it in VII. Other Technologies a. Enhanced Television i. Introduced 2011 ii. TVs with an internet connection 1. Interactive content b. RBDS i. Most listeners don’t realize that every radio station in the US can transmit a stream of digital information along with the music or talk ii. Info is designed to be displayed on the radio’s faceplate iii. RBDS: radio broadcast data service 1. Used to transmit short bursts of news iv. Usually traffic reports v. Can be tool for delivery of news by radio stations vi. Even the most basic media have new dimensions in the converged environment c. Video Games i. Consoles include internet connectivity ii. Can delivery variety of info from digital movies to custom advertising messages within a game iii. AP decided o provide news to Wii users in 2007 d. Widgets i. Aka gadgets ii. Snippets of computer code that can be embedded in a browser or sit on a computer’s desktop screen and connect online to retrieve content iii. they are pretty much always in front of the user iv. potential variety seems endless v. creating them isn’t hard vi. most news orgs use lower right section of the main web page vii. different ways to engage visitors
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