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Chapter 1

by: Leonard Carey

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Chapter 1 week 1 notes, in outline format
Anatomy & Physiology
Dr. Satern
Class Notes
Kin 290, Kinesiology, Chapter 1
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kin 290 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Kinesiology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 04/11/16
Chapter 1A Chapter 1 – Part A The Human Body: An Orientation Themes and Assumptions  Complementarity of structure and function  Hierarchy of structure and function  Homeostasis  Reference male and female ­ Young and healthy ­ Age = 22 ­ Weight  Male = 155 lbs  Female = 125 lbs Why This Matters • Learning and understanding anatomical terminology allows you to communicate  accurately with your colleagues in the health sciences. 1.1  Form and Function of Anatomy & Physiology • Anatomy • Study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another • Physiology • Study of the function of body parts; how they work to carry out life­sustaining  activities Topics of Anatomy • Subdivisions of anatomy: • Gross or macroscopic anatomy is the study of large, visible structures • Regional anatomy looks at all structures in a particular area of the body • System anatomy looks at just one system (cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, etc.) • Surface anatomy looks at internal structures as they relate to overlying skin  (visible muscle masses or veins seen on surface) Topics of Anatomy (cont.) • Subdivisions (cont.) • Microscopic anatomy deals with structures too small to be seen by naked  eye • Cytology: microscopic study of cells • Histology: microscopic study of tissues • Developmental anatomy studies anatomical and physiological development  throughout life, focusing on adult anatomy. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 1A • Embryology: study of developments before birth • To study anatomy, one must know anatomical terminology and be able to observe,  manipulate, palpate, and auscultate (concept of listening). Topics of Physiology • Subdivisions of physiology • Based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology) • Often focuses on cellular and molecular levels of the body • Looks at how the body’s abilities are dependent on chemical reactions in  individual cells • To study physiology, one must understand basic physical principles (e.g., electrical  currents, pressure, and movement) as well as basic chemical principles Complementarity of Structure and Function • Anatomy and physiology are inseparable • Function always reflects structure • What a structure can do depends on its specific form • Known as the principle of complementarity of structure and function 1.2  Structural Organization (Figure 1.1 – p. 3) • Human body is very organized, from the smallest chemical level to whole organism  level: • Chemical level: atoms, molecules, and organelles (atoms combine to form  molecules.) • Cellular level: single cell (Cells are made up of molecules) • Tissue level: groups of similar cells (Tissues consist of similar types of cells.) • Organ level: contains two or more types of tissues (Organs are made up of at  least 2 different tissue types.) • Organ system level: organs that work closely together (Organ systems  consist of different organs that work together closely) • Organismal level: all organ systems combined to make the whole organism  (The human organism is made up of many organ systems.) Quiz 2 1.3  Requirements for Life Necessary Life Functions • Maintenance of life involves: • Maintaining boundaries • Movement • Responsiveness • Digestion © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 1A • Metabolism • Excretion • Reproduction • Growth Necessary Life Functions • Maintaining boundaries  • Separation between internal and external environments must exist • Plasma membranes separate cells • Skin separates organism from environment • Movement • Muscular system allows movement • Of body parts via skeletal muscles • Of substances via cardiac muscle (blood) and smooth muscle (digestion,  urination) • Contractility refers to movement at the cellular level Necessary Life Functions (cont.) • Responsiveness • Ability to sense and respond to stimuli • Withdrawal reflex prevents injury • Control of breathing rate, which must change in response to different activities • Digestion • Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood Necessary Life Functions (cont.) • Metabolism • All chemical reactions that occur in body cells • Sum of all catabolism (breakdown of molecules) and anabolism (synthesis of  molecules) • Excretion • Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion • Urea (from breakdown of proteins), carbon dioxide (from metabolism), feces  (unabsorbed foods) Necessary Life Functions (cont.) • Reproduction  • At the cellular level, reproduction involves division of cells for growth or repair • At the organismal level, reproduction is the production of offspring  • Growth • Increase in size of a body part or of organism © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Chapter 1A Necessary Life Functions (cont.) (Figure 1.2 – p. 4)  • Humans are multicellular, so to function, individual cells must be kept alive • Organ systems are designed to service the cells • All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs  • There are 11 organ systems that work together to maintain life The body’s organ systems and their major functions (Figure 1.3 – pp. 6­7) Survival Needs  • Humans need several factors for survival that must be in the appropriate amounts;  too much or too little can be harmful: • Nutrients • Oxygen • Water • Normal body temperature • Appropriate atmospheric pressure Survival Needs (cont.) • Nutrients • Chemicals for energy and cell building • Carbohydrates: major source of energy • Proteins: needed for cell building and cell chemistry • Fats: long­term energy storage • Minerals and vitamins: involved in chemical reactions as well as for structural  purposes • Oxygen • Essential for release of energy from foods • The body can survive only a few minutes without oxygen Survival Needs (cont.) • Water • Most abundant chemical in body; provides the watery environment needed for chemical reactions • Also is fluid base for secretions and excretions • Normal body temperature • If body temp falls below or goes above 37°C, rates of chemical reactions are  affected • Appropriate atmospheric pressure • Specific pressure of air is needed for adequate breathing and gas exchange  in lungs 1.4  Homeostasis © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Chapter 1A • Homeostasis is the maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite  continuous changes in environment • A dynamic state of equilibrium, always readjusting as needed • Maintained by contributions of all organ systems Homeostatic Controls • Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain homeostasis • Nervous and endocrine systems, as well as other systems, play a major role  in maintaining homeostasis • Variables are factors that can change (blood sugar, body temperature, blood  volume, etc.) • Homeostatic control of variables involves three components: receptor, control  center, and effector Homeostatic Controls (cont.) • Receptor (sensor) • Monitors environment • Responds to stimuli (things that cause changes in controlled variables) • Control center • Determines set point at which variable is maintained • Receives input from receptor • Determines appropriate response Homeostatic Controls (cont.) • Effector • Receives output from control center • Provides the means to respond • Response either reduces stimulus (negative feedback) or enhances stimulus (positive feedback) Homeostatic Controls (cont.) (Figure 1.4 – p. 9) • Negative feedback • Most­used feedback mechanism in body • Response reduces or shuts off original stimulus • Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change • Examples • Regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism) • Regulation of blood glucose by insulin (an endocrine system mechanism) Homeostatic Controls (cont.) (Figure 1.5 – p. 10) • Example of negative feedback: • Receptors sense increased blood glucose (blood sugar) • Pancreas (control center) secretes insulin into the blood © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Chapter 1A • Insulin causes body cells (effectors) to absorb more glucose, which  decreases blood glucose levels Homeostatic Controls (cont.) (Figure 1.6 – p. 11) • Positive feedback • Response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus • May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect as feedback causes variable to  continue in same direction as initial change • Usually controls infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustment,  for example: • Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin • Platelet plug formation and blood clotting Homeostatic Imbalance • Disturbance of homeostasis • Increases risk of disease • Contributes to changes associated with aging • Control systems become less efficient •  If negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive positive feedback mechanisms may take over  • Heart failure © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 6


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