EVE12 week 3 notes
EVE12 week 3 notes EVE12
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth P. on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVE12 at University of California - Davis taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Life in the Sea in Biology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Marine Flowering Plants 1. What is primary production and why is it important? 2. What are angiosperms? 3. What is meant by trophic support? 4. What is the difference between grazer-based and detritus-based marine food webs? 1. Review a. CA Upwelling Ecosystem b. Phytoplankton based food web i. Diatoms, plankton ii. Krill, herbivore/consumer iii. Whales 2. Kelp Forests-Giant Brown Seaweeds a. Review seaweeds b. Review primary production concept c. Focus on kelps d. Build seaweed based food web i. Herbivores vs. detrivores vs filter feeders ii. Compare a phytoplankton to a seaweed based food web e. Top down control of an ecosystem by an important herbivore or predator 3. Kelp (macrocystis) a. Cool waters along rocky coasts b. Tall 30-40” c. Fast growth, 1 cm a day d. Highly productive e. Provide habitat that leads to high biodiversity f. Support a seaweed based food web 4. Global ocean primary production a. 55% of total PP on earth occurs in ocean b. kelp forests are coastal marine ecosystems 5. kelps have complex life history a. 2 phases, sporophyte produces spores that settle in microscopic gametophytes which produce gametes b. females produce sperm attractant 6. many species of kelp a. hollow stemmed kelp b. edible kelp c. horsetail kelp d. new species of kelp discovered in Aleutian islands in 2007 i. large type of brown seaweed ii. golden V kelp: aureophycus aleuticus iii. length 10’ iv. very isolated distribution, volcanic activity, warm sands in cold seas, restricted to shallow 15’ or 3m 7. Kelp morphology a. Holdfast b. Stipe c. Blade or frond (the photosynthetic area) d. Gas bladder (pneumatocyst) 8. How do large kelp survive in the sea a. Stay upright in photic zone, plenty of light for photosynthesis to support large size b. Adaptations for drag, large holdfasts anchor kelp c. Streamlining, minimize surface area exposed to drag 9. Kelp based food web a. Sea otters, endangered marine mammal because they were hunted for their fur b. Took us about 40 years to list them as endangered c. Effect of sea otters on the biodiversity in a kelp forest i. They are the top predators, control sea urchins (sea urchins eat kelp), fewer sea urchins means more kelp and higher biodiversity k ii. Predators can keep dominant organisms in check from outcompeting other species, referred to as trophic cascade 10. Economic benefits of seaweeds a. Estimated at 6 billion b. Wakame food kelp =149 million in the US: is an invasive marine species (non native species that can harm native sea life and marine natural resources) c. Health and dietary benefits of eating seaweed, farmers care about sustainability 11. Abalone in kelp beds i. Mollusc with a single shell (gastropod) ii. Eats kelp detritus iii. Large edible muscular foot iv. Several species v. Threatened with extinction vi. White abalone is an endangered species vii. Live in kelp beds, eaten by sea otters and humans, herbivore (eat live red algae), detritivore (eat dead organic matter), broadcast spawnders viii. Abalone larvae prefer to settle on red seaweeds, their habitat and food sources ix. Red seaweed produces Gamma amino butyric acid GABA, (neurotransmitter compound, induce settlement of abalone), red algae release a chemical mimic of GABA x. Abalone eat kelp and seaweed detritus xi. Overharvesting and decimated by disease (withering foot syndrome) xii. Foot necessary to attach to rocks and resist drag 12. Sabellid worm infestation of abalone a. Non native sabellid worm was imported to abalone farms, caused bankruptcy b. Eradication efforts were unsuccessful c. Invasive species 13. Summary a. Kelp is an example of a benthic primary producer b. Kelp describes a type of brown seaweed that is large and grows in cool waters on rocky shores c. They have complex life histories with microscpic phases that produce gametes, the female produces a pheremore that attracts the male gamete which swims d. Giant kelps (Macrocystis, Nereocystis (bull kelp)) form large forests., They are seaweed ecosystem engineers because of the structure they provide for other organisms and because they modify the water flow environment. e. Top-down control of an ecosystem (trophic cascade) means that an organism higher in the food web has an important effect on the lower levels in the food web, e.g., the primary producers, or on the diversity and abundance of animals. The sea otter exerts top-down control on the primary producers in a kelp forest through eating sea urchins. Sea urchins in high numbers can decimate kelp, leaving primarily crustose coralline red algae (resistant to grazing). The loss of an apex predator can result in decreased biodiversity. 14. Thought questions a. What are the most productive regions of the ocean and why b. kelps are brown seaweeds, how are kelps different from other brown seaweeds 15. Study Questions 16. 1. What is primary production and why is it important? 17. 2. Name and contrast major groups of marine primary producers. (How do they differ in habitat, in morphology, in reproduction?) 18. 3. What areas of the ocean are most productive and why? 19. 4. Marine primary producers are important for life in the sea (question #1), but some marine primary producers have negative effects on humans. Describe an example. 20. 5. List ways that humans benefit from seaweeds. 21. 6. What is detritus? 22. 7. What is ‘top down control’? Control of what? Provide a specific example. 23. 8. What adaptations do phytoplankton have for life in the pelagic zone? 24. 9. Draw and label a phytoplankton-based food web and a kelp-based food web. 4/14/16 Marine Flowering Plants Goals 1. Complete the survey of marine primary producers 2. Introduce seagrasses and seagrass beds 3. Introduce salt marsh plants and salt marshes 4. Introduce mangroves and mangrove forests 5. Contrast grazers with detritus based food webs Endangered potbellied seahorses in seagrass: lots of parental investment, all seahorses threatened with extinction, depend on seagrass as their habitat A. Marine Flowering Plants a. Closely related to terrestrial flowering plants, especially fresh-waster angiosperms (green plants that reproduce by flowering, producing pollen and seeds) i. Vascular plants: veins transport water and sugars ii. True roots, leaves, stems b. Angiosperms evolved from green algae that colonized land from the ocean, adapted to freshwater lakes, then re- colonized the sea, adapting to salinity and rigorous water motion c. From coastal, often intertidal ecosystems i. Seagrass beds (meadows) ii. Mangrove forests iii. Salt marshes d. Provide the important ecosystem functions and services i. High primary production and food web support ii. Stabilization of soft coastal sediments iii. Nursery habitat for economically valuable specie e. Vulnerable to human activities i. Coastal development ii. Nutrient overfertilization (eutrophication) iii. Aquaculture iv. Introductions of non native species f. Seagrasses, algal beds, salt marshes, mangroves are highly productive and valuable ecosystems g. Economic loss follows coastal ecosystem loss B. Seagrasses a. 55 species b. Not true grasses c. Among the most productive plants in the world, each leaf can grow up to 2cm a day d. Morphology i. Leaves are bundled into leaf shoots ii. Roots and rhizomes (underground stems) anchor them in sediments iii. Can be cylinders, ovals or straps e. seagrasses on the US west coast i. Eelgrass, grows in sediments in quiet bays ii. surfgrass, grows on rocks iii. Both species important for California lobsters f. Simple life history, produce flowers, pollen and seeds g. Surfgrass has long flowering shoots, currents carry pollen to female flower, male flowers release pollen i. enhalus, one of the biggest seagrasses, grows in the indo pacific region h. Important ecological functions of seagrasses i. High primary production, supports herbivore and detritivore food webs ii. Sediment stabilization, coastal protection iii. Refuge from predators iv. Nursery areas for shrimps, crabs, lobsters, fishes v. Food and habitat for endangered species, seahorses, green turtles, manatees, dugongs, fishes vi. Provide detritus food and shelter for deep sea animals vii. Several species are endangered with extinction C. Trophic support a. Herbivores, eat living plant tissue b. detritivores, dead organic matter c. trophic support: the provision of food for animals in the food web d. Secondary consumers eat detritivores and herbivores lower in the food web D. Human use of seagrasses a. Early US settlers insulated houses and barns with dried eelgrass b. Compost for gardens c. Upholstering and packing d. Production of high grade paper e. Food, roofing, woven into blankets and dolls, cure for diarrhea f. Substitute for straw, fuel, bedding, roof hatch g. Sturdy, durable dikes h. Mulch on potato fields i. Gelling agents j. Cotton replacement k. Seeds used as aphrodisiac E. Eelgrass, an ocean grain a. Seeds are harvested and made into flour b. Used in basketry, roofing, shades and toys c. The month of harvest is named fro the eelgrass F. Coastal benthic marine ecosystems exist close to humans a. Nutrients from land cause algae to bloom, smother and kill seagrass b. Sediments erode, biodiversity declines c. eutrophication: nutrient over enrichment d. epiphytes: organisms that live on larger plants, algal epiphytes naturally live on seagrass and add to the primary production e. eutrophication causes them to block light and carbon dioxide from the seagrass G. mangroves, intertidal forests a. are flowering trees b. adaptations to sea i. prop roots ii. drop leaves to rid excess salt iii. aerial roots provide oxygen in low oxygen sediments iv. prop roots support large trees and provide nursery for fishes c. mangroves are good fishing grounds but are being converted into shrimp aquaculture H. saltmarshes a. intertidal habitats dominated by salt tolerant angiosperms i. pickleweed ii. California cordgrass 1. A true grass 2. Grows along creek banks in the marsh b. Invasive east coast cordgrass overruns Pacific salt marshes in the SF bay c. Eastern cordgrass invasion, grows in tight clumps, fills in mudflat habitat important for shorebirds, traps sediment and fills in channels d. Eradication versus control of eastern cordgrass i. Herbicide application ii. Mowing iii. Biocontrol by the insect Prokelsia I. Summary: Marine Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) J. 1. Marine angiosperms form coastal ecosystems: seagrass beds, mangrove forests, salt marshes. K. 2. Marine angiosperms have high rates of primary production, stabilize soft sediments along shorelines, create habitat structure, provide nursery areas, support economically valuable and endangered species, and are important to humans. L. 3. Due to their close proximity to land and humans, seagrass beds, mangrove forests, and salt marshes are strongly influenced by human activities. Eutrophication Nonnative species Habitat destruction Review questions: Marine Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) 1. Hare are marine angiosperms (seagrass, salt marsh plants, mangroves) similar and different? 2. Name adaptations of marine angiosperms to the ocean environment. Be specific about which type of angiosperm. 3. The eastern cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora and its hybrid) is an example of a non native species that became invasive. Define invasive species. This example illustrates why new invasions should be ‘nipped in the bud’ as soon as they arefound. Explain the rationale behind this management strategy. 4. One consequence of global warming is that sea level is risingrapidly. How would sea level rise affect coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrass beds, salt marshes, mangroves, but also the seaweeds: kelps, intertidal and subtidal seaweed beds)?
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