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Kin 290, Chapter 7, Week 7

by: Leonard Carey

Kin 290, Chapter 7, Week 7 Kin 290

Leonard Carey


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Chapter 7, Upper and lower appendages
Anatomy & Physiology
Dr. Satern
Class Notes
Kin 290, Kinesiology, anatomy
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kin 290 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Kinesiology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 04/11/16
Chapter 7B Chapter 7 – Part B The Skeleton Part 2  The Appendicular Skeleton • Consists of bones of the limbs and their girdles – Pectoral girdle • Attaches upper limbs to body trunk 7.4  The Pectoral Girdle (Figure 7.25 – p. 227) • Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle) consists of clavicles (anteriorly) and scapulae  (posteriorly) • Attach upper limbs to axial skeleton  • Provide attachment sites for muscles that move upper limbs • Offer great degree of mobility because: • Scapulae are not attached to axial skeleton • Socket of shoulder joint is shallow and does not restrict movement Clavicles (Figure 7.26 – p. 228) • Also called collarbones • S­shaped sternal end articulates with sternum medially • Flattened acromial end articulates laterally with scapula • Anchor muscles and act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally  Scapulae (Figure 7.27 – p. 229) • Also called shoulder blades; thin, triangular flat bones on dorsal surface of rib cage,  between ribs 2 and 7 • Each scapula has three borders • Superior: shortest, sharpest border • Medial (vertebral): runs parallel to spine • Lateral (axillary): near armpit, ends superiorly in glenoid cavity fossa (shoulder  joint) Scapulae (cont.) • Each scapula has three angles where borders meet: • Superior angle: between superior and medial • Lateral angle: between superior and lateral • Inferior angle: between medial and lateral Scapulae (cont.) • Bone features • Spine: prominent ridge posteriorly • Acromion: lateral projection that articulates with acromial end of clavicle to form  © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 7B acromioclavicular joint • Coracoid process: anterior projection that anchors bicep muscle of arm • Suprascapular notch: opening for nerves • Several large fossae named according to location 7.5  The Upper Limb • 30 bones form skeletal framework of each upper limb • Arm • Humerus • Forearm • Radius and ulna • Hand • 8 carpal bones in the wrist • 5 metacarpal bones in the palm • 14 phalanges in the fingers Arm (Figure 7.28a, b, & c – p. 230) • Humerus: only bone of the arm; the largest and longest bone of upper limb • Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula • Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna Arm (cont.) • Bone features • Head: proximal end that fits into glenoid cavity of scapula • Anatomical neck: slight constriction inferior to head • Greater tubercle is separated from lesser tubercle by the intertubercular sulcus • Sites of attachment of rotator cuff muscles • Surgical neck: most frequently fractured part of humerus Arm (cont.) (Figure 728d & e – p. 231) • Bone features (cont.) • Deltoid tuberosity: about midway down shaft; site of deltoid muscle attachment • Radial groove: carries radial nerve • Trochlea: distal hourglass­shaped condyle • Capitulum: distal ball­like condyle • Medial and lateral epicondyles: points of muscle attachment • Medial and lateral supracondyle ridges • Fossae: coronoid, olecranon, and radial Forearm (Figure 7.29a, b, & c – p. 232) • Two parallel bones form forearm skeleton: ulna and radius • Proximal ends articulate with humerus and each other © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 7B • Distally articulate with each other at the radioulnar joint • Interosseous membrane connects radius and ulna along their entire length Forearm (cont.) • Ulna • Medial bone in forearm • Forms major portion of elbow joint with humerus • Bone features • Olecranon and coronoid processes: grip trochlea of humerus, forming  hinge joint • Processes separated by trochlear notch • Radial notch: articulates with head of radius • Ulnar head: knoblike distal portion • Ulnar styloid process: ligament attachment Forearm (cont.) (Figure 7.29d & e – p. 233) • Radius • Lateral bone in forearm • Bone features • Head: articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna • Radial tuberosity: anchors biceps • Ulnar notch: articulates with ulna • Radial styloid process: anchors ligaments Hand (Figure 7.30 – p. 234) • Bones of the hand include carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges • Carpus (wrist): eight bones in two rows • Proximal row: lateral to medial • Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform • Distal row: lateral to medial • Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate • Only scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum form wrist joint Hand (cont.) • Metacarpus (palm) • Five metacarpal bones (I to V from thumb to little finger) form the palm • Bases articulate with carpals, and heads articulate with proximal phalanges • Phalanges (fingers) • Fingers (digits): numbered I to V starting at thumb (pollex) • Digit I (pollex) has two bones: no middle phalanx • Digits II to V have three bones: distal, middle, and proximal phalanx © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Chapter 7B Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 7.4 • Median nerve and tendons travel through carpal tunnel • Tunnel formed by ligaments through wrist • Carpal tunnel syndrome can occur from overuse and inflammation of tendons, which can compress median nerve, causing tingling and numbness © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Chapter 7C Chapter 7 – Part C The Skeleton Part 2  The Appendicular Skeleton • Consists of bones of the limbs and their girdles • Pelvic girdle  • Attaches lower limbs to body trunk 7.6  The Pelvic Girdle (Figure 7.31 – p. 237) • Also called hip girdle; is formed by 2 hip bones (coxal bones, or os coxae) and  sacrum • Attach lower limbs to axial skeleton with strong ligaments • Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs • Support pelvic organs • Less mobility but more stability than shoulder joint • Three fused bones form coxal bone • Ilium, ischium, and pubis • Deep socket, acetabulum, formed at point of fusion receives head of femur Coxal Bone (Figure 7.32 – p. 237) • Ilium • Superior region of coxal bone • Auricular surface articulates with sacrum (sacroiliac joint) • Ischium • Posteroinferior part of hip bone • Pubis • Anterior portion of hip bone • Pubis joins at pubic symphysis joint Ilium  • Superior region of hip bone  • Consists of body and winglike ala • Iliac crests: thickened superior margin of ala • Iliac crest ends at anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac  spine  • Greater sciatic notch: sciatic nerve passage Ischium • Posteroinferior part of hip bone • Consists of body and Ischial tuberosity Pubis © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 7C • V­shaped anterior portion of hip bone • Anterior border forms the pubic crest • Obturator foramen: large opening formed by rami and body • Pubic bones join at pubic symphysis Pelvic Structure and Childbearing (Table 7.4 – p. 239) • Pelvis: formed by hip bones, sacrum, and coccyx • Female pelvis tends to be wider, shallower, lighter, and rounder than male’s  • Adapted for childbearing  Male pelvis is tilted less far forward and the cavity of the true pelvis is narrow and  deep ­­ Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles 7.7  The Lower Limb • Carries entire weight of erect body • Subjected to exceptional forces during jumping or running • Three segments of lower limb • Thigh • Leg • Foot Thigh (Figure 7.33 – p. 240) • Femur is largest and strongest bone in the body, making up about one­fourth of  person’s height • Articulates proximally with acetabulum of hip and distally with tibia and patella • Patella: sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon that protects knee joint Thigh (cont.) • Bone features • Fovea capitis: small pit in ball­like head • Greater and lesser trochanters: muscle attachment sites • Trochanters connected by intertrochanteric line and intertrochanteric  crest Thigh (cont.) (Table 7.5 – p. 241) • Bone features (cont.) • Distally, femur ends in lateral and medial condyles that articulate with tibia • Medial and lateral epicondyles: sites of muscle attachment • Adductor tubercle: medial epicondyle bump • Patellar surface: articulates with patella • Intercondylar fossa: lies between condyles © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 7C Leg • Made up of two parallel bones, tibia and fibula • Connected by interosseous membrane • Tibia: medial leg bone that receives weight of body from femur; transmits to foot • Fibula • Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur • Several muscles originate from fibula • Articulates proximally and distally with tibia Leg (cont.) (Figure 7.34a & b – p. 242 & Figure 7.34d & e – p. 243) • Bone features • Tibia • Medial and lateral condyles • Intercondylar eminence • Tibial tuberosity • Anterior border • Medial malleolus • Fibular notch • Fibular: • Head • Lateral malleolus Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 7.4 (Figure 7.34c – p. 242) • Pott’s fracture occurs at distal end of fibula, the tibia, or both • Common sports injury Foot (Figure 7.35 – p. 244) • Skeleton of foot includes bones of tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges • Tarsus: 7 tarsal bones form posterior half • Body weight carried primarily by talus and calcaneus (heel)  • Calcaneal tuberosity: part that touches ground • Sustentacular tali (talar shelf): supports talus • Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, and medial, intermediate, and lateral  cuneiform bones Foot (cont.) • Metatarsals • Five metatarsal bones (I to V from hallux to little toe) • Enlarged head of metatarsal I forms “ball of the foot” • Phalanges • 14 bones of toes • Digit I (hallux, great toe) has two bones: no middle phalanx © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Chapter 7C • Digits II to V have three bones: distal, middle, and proximal phalanx Foot (cont.) (Figure 7.36 – p. 245) • Arches of the foot • Maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons • Allow foot to bear weight • Three arches • Lateral longitudinal: low curve that elevates lateral part of foot • Medial longitudinal: arch curves upwards • Transverse: runs obliquely from one side of foot to other Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 7.4 • Fallen arches, also called “flat feet,” result from stress on tendons and ligaments of  feet • Can be caused by: • Standing immobile for extended periods of time • Running on hard surfaces without proper arch support © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 4


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