Kin 290, Chapter 7, Week 7
Kin 290, Chapter 7, Week 7 Kin 290
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kin 290 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Kinesiology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Chapter 7B Chapter 7 – Part B The Skeleton Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton • Consists of bones of the limbs and their girdles – Pectoral girdle • Attaches upper limbs to body trunk 7.4 The Pectoral Girdle (Figure 7.25 – p. 227) • Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle) consists of clavicles (anteriorly) and scapulae (posteriorly) • Attach upper limbs to axial skeleton • Provide attachment sites for muscles that move upper limbs • Offer great degree of mobility because: • Scapulae are not attached to axial skeleton • Socket of shoulder joint is shallow and does not restrict movement Clavicles (Figure 7.26 – p. 228) • Also called collarbones • Sshaped sternal end articulates with sternum medially • Flattened acromial end articulates laterally with scapula • Anchor muscles and act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally Scapulae (Figure 7.27 – p. 229) • Also called shoulder blades; thin, triangular flat bones on dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7 • Each scapula has three borders • Superior: shortest, sharpest border • Medial (vertebral): runs parallel to spine • Lateral (axillary): near armpit, ends superiorly in glenoid cavity fossa (shoulder joint) Scapulae (cont.) • Each scapula has three angles where borders meet: • Superior angle: between superior and medial • Lateral angle: between superior and lateral • Inferior angle: between medial and lateral Scapulae (cont.) • Bone features • Spine: prominent ridge posteriorly • Acromion: lateral projection that articulates with acromial end of clavicle to form © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 7B acromioclavicular joint • Coracoid process: anterior projection that anchors bicep muscle of arm • Suprascapular notch: opening for nerves • Several large fossae named according to location 7.5 The Upper Limb • 30 bones form skeletal framework of each upper limb • Arm • Humerus • Forearm • Radius and ulna • Hand • 8 carpal bones in the wrist • 5 metacarpal bones in the palm • 14 phalanges in the fingers Arm (Figure 7.28a, b, & c – p. 230) • Humerus: only bone of the arm; the largest and longest bone of upper limb • Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula • Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna Arm (cont.) • Bone features • Head: proximal end that fits into glenoid cavity of scapula • Anatomical neck: slight constriction inferior to head • Greater tubercle is separated from lesser tubercle by the intertubercular sulcus • Sites of attachment of rotator cuff muscles • Surgical neck: most frequently fractured part of humerus Arm (cont.) (Figure 728d & e – p. 231) • Bone features (cont.) • Deltoid tuberosity: about midway down shaft; site of deltoid muscle attachment • Radial groove: carries radial nerve • Trochlea: distal hourglassshaped condyle • Capitulum: distal balllike condyle • Medial and lateral epicondyles: points of muscle attachment • Medial and lateral supracondyle ridges • Fossae: coronoid, olecranon, and radial Forearm (Figure 7.29a, b, & c – p. 232) • Two parallel bones form forearm skeleton: ulna and radius • Proximal ends articulate with humerus and each other © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 7B • Distally articulate with each other at the radioulnar joint • Interosseous membrane connects radius and ulna along their entire length Forearm (cont.) • Ulna • Medial bone in forearm • Forms major portion of elbow joint with humerus • Bone features • Olecranon and coronoid processes: grip trochlea of humerus, forming hinge joint • Processes separated by trochlear notch • Radial notch: articulates with head of radius • Ulnar head: knoblike distal portion • Ulnar styloid process: ligament attachment Forearm (cont.) (Figure 7.29d & e – p. 233) • Radius • Lateral bone in forearm • Bone features • Head: articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna • Radial tuberosity: anchors biceps • Ulnar notch: articulates with ulna • Radial styloid process: anchors ligaments Hand (Figure 7.30 – p. 234) • Bones of the hand include carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges • Carpus (wrist): eight bones in two rows • Proximal row: lateral to medial • Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform • Distal row: lateral to medial • Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate • Only scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum form wrist joint Hand (cont.) • Metacarpus (palm) • Five metacarpal bones (I to V from thumb to little finger) form the palm • Bases articulate with carpals, and heads articulate with proximal phalanges • Phalanges (fingers) • Fingers (digits): numbered I to V starting at thumb (pollex) • Digit I (pollex) has two bones: no middle phalanx • Digits II to V have three bones: distal, middle, and proximal phalanx © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Chapter 7B Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 7.4 • Median nerve and tendons travel through carpal tunnel • Tunnel formed by ligaments through wrist • Carpal tunnel syndrome can occur from overuse and inflammation of tendons, which can compress median nerve, causing tingling and numbness © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Chapter 7C Chapter 7 – Part C The Skeleton Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton • Consists of bones of the limbs and their girdles • Pelvic girdle • Attaches lower limbs to body trunk 7.6 The Pelvic Girdle (Figure 7.31 – p. 237) • Also called hip girdle; is formed by 2 hip bones (coxal bones, or os coxae) and sacrum • Attach lower limbs to axial skeleton with strong ligaments • Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs • Support pelvic organs • Less mobility but more stability than shoulder joint • Three fused bones form coxal bone • Ilium, ischium, and pubis • Deep socket, acetabulum, formed at point of fusion receives head of femur Coxal Bone (Figure 7.32 – p. 237) • Ilium • Superior region of coxal bone • Auricular surface articulates with sacrum (sacroiliac joint) • Ischium • Posteroinferior part of hip bone • Pubis • Anterior portion of hip bone • Pubis joins at pubic symphysis joint Ilium • Superior region of hip bone • Consists of body and winglike ala • Iliac crests: thickened superior margin of ala • Iliac crest ends at anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine • Greater sciatic notch: sciatic nerve passage Ischium • Posteroinferior part of hip bone • Consists of body and Ischial tuberosity Pubis © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Chapter 7C • Vshaped anterior portion of hip bone • Anterior border forms the pubic crest • Obturator foramen: large opening formed by rami and body • Pubic bones join at pubic symphysis Pelvic Structure and Childbearing (Table 7.4 – p. 239) • Pelvis: formed by hip bones, sacrum, and coccyx • Female pelvis tends to be wider, shallower, lighter, and rounder than male’s • Adapted for childbearing Male pelvis is tilted less far forward and the cavity of the true pelvis is narrow and deep Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles 7.7 The Lower Limb • Carries entire weight of erect body • Subjected to exceptional forces during jumping or running • Three segments of lower limb • Thigh • Leg • Foot Thigh (Figure 7.33 – p. 240) • Femur is largest and strongest bone in the body, making up about onefourth of person’s height • Articulates proximally with acetabulum of hip and distally with tibia and patella • Patella: sesamoid bone in quadriceps tendon that protects knee joint Thigh (cont.) • Bone features • Fovea capitis: small pit in balllike head • Greater and lesser trochanters: muscle attachment sites • Trochanters connected by intertrochanteric line and intertrochanteric crest Thigh (cont.) (Table 7.5 – p. 241) • Bone features (cont.) • Distally, femur ends in lateral and medial condyles that articulate with tibia • Medial and lateral epicondyles: sites of muscle attachment • Adductor tubercle: medial epicondyle bump • Patellar surface: articulates with patella • Intercondylar fossa: lies between condyles © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 7C Leg • Made up of two parallel bones, tibia and fibula • Connected by interosseous membrane • Tibia: medial leg bone that receives weight of body from femur; transmits to foot • Fibula • Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur • Several muscles originate from fibula • Articulates proximally and distally with tibia Leg (cont.) (Figure 7.34a & b – p. 242 & Figure 7.34d & e – p. 243) • Bone features • Tibia • Medial and lateral condyles • Intercondylar eminence • Tibial tuberosity • Anterior border • Medial malleolus • Fibular notch • Fibular: • Head • Lateral malleolus Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 7.4 (Figure 7.34c – p. 242) • Pott’s fracture occurs at distal end of fibula, the tibia, or both • Common sports injury Foot (Figure 7.35 – p. 244) • Skeleton of foot includes bones of tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges • Tarsus: 7 tarsal bones form posterior half • Body weight carried primarily by talus and calcaneus (heel) • Calcaneal tuberosity: part that touches ground • Sustentacular tali (talar shelf): supports talus • Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, and medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones Foot (cont.) • Metatarsals • Five metatarsal bones (I to V from hallux to little toe) • Enlarged head of metatarsal I forms “ball of the foot” • Phalanges • 14 bones of toes • Digit I (hallux, great toe) has two bones: no middle phalanx © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Chapter 7C • Digits II to V have three bones: distal, middle, and proximal phalanx Foot (cont.) (Figure 7.36 – p. 245) • Arches of the foot • Maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons • Allow foot to bear weight • Three arches • Lateral longitudinal: low curve that elevates lateral part of foot • Medial longitudinal: arch curves upwards • Transverse: runs obliquely from one side of foot to other Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 7.4 • Fallen arches, also called “flat feet,” result from stress on tendons and ligaments of feet • Can be caused by: • Standing immobile for extended periods of time • Running on hard surfaces without proper arch support © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 4
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