History 112 History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
History 112 April 12, 2016 o Election of 1968 – George Wallace – former Alabama governor; staunch segregationist and champion of massive resistance against Civil Rights Movement; third party candidate (American Independent Party) Hubert Humphrey – Democrat; LBJ’s Vice President; nomination uncertain before Robert Kennedy’s assassination; Democratic National Convention drama in Chicago damages party image Richard Nixon – Republican; Eisenhower’s Vice President; appealed to the “silent majority” (those in Middle America whose voices had not been prominent in the 1960s); campaign for law and order to signal transition from previous decade’s disorder; had vocal support from Billy Graham (America’s most famous evangelist and ardent anti-communist); hoped to gain the popularity among religious conservatives who opposed liberal 1960s movements o Nixon’s Southern Strategy – busing – black students are bused in to predominantly white community schools and white students are bused in to predominantly black community schools to enforce de facto desegregation where it exists; extremely unpopular with many white parents who did not want to move their children to black schools; triggers property rights arguments and ends up in courtrooms; in exchange for their endorsement in the south, Nixon promises Strom Thurmond and Jesse Helms that he will nominate Supreme Court judges who would block busing cases; prompts many southerners to vote Republican for the first time o Nixon’s Foreign Policy – Kissinger’s (Nixon’s Secretary of State) plan for international relations – suggests to reopen relations with People’s Republic of China; Nixon in China after “ping pong diplomacy”; détente – focusing on issues of common concern to ease political tension; Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) in the early 1970s between the US and Soviet Union – agreed to limit antiballistic missiles to two; president during invasion of Cambodia and Vietnamization process; deeply distressed after Pentagon Papers leaked o Gerald Ford – was not Nixon’s running mate in 1972 (Agnew resigned) – Nixon appointed him as Vice President a month before his resignation; post-Watergate fallout damages Republican Party – his pardon of Nixon’s involvement in Watergate damages Ford’s credibility; fiscally conservative; sidestepped some social issues and supported women’s movement; presidency leaves political vacuum on the Right o Roe v. Wade – right to privacy already established in Griswold v. Connecticut – gave women access to birth control; Catholics start to mobilize politically and set up “right to life” committees; granted access to regulated abortion o Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) – equality of rights under the law should not be denied or abridged on account of sex o Phyllis Schlafly – author of A Choice, Not An Echo; organized STOP ERA (Stop Taking Our Privileges); believed the ERA was dangerous because it meant that women would be the same as men, not equal – there are God-given differences between men and women; ERA could make women be drafted and fight on front lines in battle, could be forced to use unisex bathrooms, undermines the role of the homemaker o International Women’s Year Conference – funded in the Ford administration and brought to fruition in the Carter administration; 130,000 women and men from every state and territory; planks included abortion and lesbian rights; makes the women’s movement seem controversial; counter-rally held across town in Houston by Phyllis Schlafly o Social Conservatism – Schlafly’s pro-family rally attracts people opposed to the feminist movement; religio-policial organizations like Moral Majority attract evangelical voters; opposition to homosexuality, abortion, and ERA; wanted a return to Christian morality and small governments o 1976 Presidential Election – Gerald Ford – not a conservative; struggles to gain Republican nomination due to presence of New Right conservative wing think-tanks and direct mail campaigns Jimmy Carter – southern Democrat – people were not sure what “kind” of Democrat he would be Both candidates support women’s movement, pro-choice, and pro-ERA History 112 April 14, 2016 Jimmy Carter runs as a Southern Democrat White Southern vote Republican At the local level White Conservatives will still vote Democrat - Democratic governor of Georgia “ Born- again” Southern Baptist - Oil Crisis in 1974 - Stagflation= rising inflation + slow growth + rising unemployment o It takes a larger percentage of the common man’s pay check to keep the economy going $$ in milk goes up but pay checks go down 68 billion in deficit - Ted Kennedy and disputes on health care - Crumbled political coalition by 1980 Iranian Revolution - Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi visited the US twice in Nixon administration; Nixon expands assistance to military buildup to help promote Iran as Middle Eastern power; friendly relationship continued in Ford and Carter administration - Criticism of Shah in late 1970s as anti-Islamic and authoritarian leadership results in widespread riot o Shah is viewed as not answering the public in Iran o Iran people says he is the puppet of the US - January 16, 1979: Shah flees Iran o New leadership that takes over o Creates an Islamic Republic o Popular among the people - February 1, 1979: Ayatollah Khomeini return from exile to France and facilitates creation of theocratic republic, Islamic Republican of Iran; oil prices increases o The people are relieved that Shah is gone and wants him back to trial him in court o Unfriendly to the US because the old ruler we suppressive to them and friends with the US o Oil prices will increase and the US will not have a special relationship with the new ruler OIL CRISIS in the US Carter Doctrine - June 1979: Carter sign SALT II to limit strategic missiles o Not favored because it did not try to stop the Cold war but to ease the tension - Soviet Union invades Afghanistan to prop up pro- Soviet government in Kabul - Carter withdraws SALT II, boycott 1980 Olympics, provides support for Afghan rebels - Rationale: Soviet actions threaten oil supplies; US will use of any means necessary to prevent an outside force from gaining control of the Persian Gulf ** The Soviet Union is threatening US oil **The US has to establish some type of control to have guaranteed oil from the Persian Gulf Iran Hostage Crisis 1979 - Exile Shah falls ill, seeks treatment/ refuge in Fall o October 1979 Shah gets treatment - November 4: Pro-Khomeini students raid US Embassy in Tehran leads to capture of 52 Americans; held for 444 days, 1979-1981 o They want Shah back to put him on trial o And they want his money to give back to the people in Iran - Demands; Shah returned to Iran for trial, Americans give back Shahs money, Carter administration apologizes for actions - April 1980; Operation Eagle Claw plagued by weather and systemic problems; helicopter crashes into cargo plane; 8 deaths o Rescue tactic and a complete failure - Carter administration negotiates for release Ronald Reagan - Transformation from liberal to conservative o No one ran for conservative since Berry Goldwater - Ran against Ford in 1976 primary - Represented Right wing of Republican Party o First successful candidate - Looked to Coolidge as fiscal influence o Replace Truman’s portrait and replaced it with Coolidge’s portrait in the White House’ o Coolidge is his inspiration to back economics - Social conservatives take credit for playing a role in his win - Wins Election of 1980 Reaganomics - Focuses on economics issues - Supply-side economics: large tax cuts for corporations and the wealthy grows the economy - Goals: dismantle the New Deal, return to de-regulation and small government rule o Small government allows businesses to grow - Implemented hiring freeze and freeze on new rules for government agencies in first weeks - 1981; Budget Bill: Cut social programs o Implemented tax reform (though scaled back after 1982 recession) - 35% approval rating in 1982 but resounding win in Presidential Election of 2984 Reagan Doctrine - Supported large scale military buildup: “Peace through Strength” - Force the Soviet Union to cripple their economy through outlandish military expenditures to prop up proxies in third world countries o US aids local “freedom fighters” in these areas - 1983: Strategic Defense Initiative SDI as new nuclear buildup Deploy missiles in the air to destroy anything that is coming towards US to kill us o Put stress on Soviet Union to build up their military unless they will lose the war o Soviet government and economy does not have enough $$ to build military and sustain life of the people Reagan calls SSR evil - National debt grows from $994 billion in 1980 to $2.8 trillion in 1989 ** defeat is the primary goal
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