Political Systems ANTH 1102
Popular in Introduction to Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
Reviews for Political Systems
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/11/16
Political Systems: Making Decisions • Political organization: “those portions of social organization that specifically relate to the individuals or groups that manage affairs of public policy or seek to control the appointment or activities of those individuals or groups” o Has to do with individuals/groups in positions of power o The management of society – decision making and economy o Appointing people o Bands à states: politics differ • Scales of Human Societies: o Bands: small, egalitarian groups of hunter-gatherers o Segmentary societies: kinship-based groups usually farming peoples, no formal political institutions o Chiefdoms: larger stratified populations, class system, political and religious o States: secular leaders, social classes, armies, taxation, laws, expansive economy • Power and Leadership: o Power = the ability or right to control people or things § Differential access to resources § Resolving conflicts between group members § Making decisions that affect other people’s lives – may be internal (within community) or external (with other communities) § Complicated or simple o Leadership in small-scale societies: § Band leader or spokesperson • Normally male • Achieved status – not born into position o Course of lifetime, demonstrates skills, judgment, etc. • “first among equals” o rare that they actually have power – granted ability by others • egalitarian o no power over others – rather they simply speak on community’s behalf § Village head: • Achieved status, not inherited • Lead by example or persuasion • Consensual decision-making and councils • Women select what men will be the spokes person o Selected from a matriarchal lineage § “Big man” • highly influential individual o supporters often in several villages o skilled persuasion • leadership based on redistribution and reciprocity • gain wealth and give it away o shows you care o supporters in many villages • power, prestige, and serve as a good person rather than absolute power o Leadership in complex societies § Chiefs • Hereditary positions o Born into it • Entrenched social stratification • Usually supported by a council • Ex. Mississippian Societies in Southeastern US • Ex. Miocene, Greece o Late 1800’s excavated “Grave Circle A” o Infant buried in gold leaf surrounded by precious medals o Evidence of hereditary ruling/inherited status § State societies • Organizationally complex • Secular leaders o Not religious/ super natural oriented • Population control o Movement over borders • Judiciary o Crimes and laws o Enforcement (internal control) o Military (external control) • Fiscal systems (economic control) • Economic specialization o Terms of influence on system and responsible for economy • Hegemony and Resistance o Hegemony = social order in which subordinates are socialized to accept hierarchy as “natural” § Social control § Ideology § Accept government structure as natural • Make your view the societal world view o Win consent of rules from subjects o Resistance = opposition to the dominant social order § Critique § Protest § Revolution • Ex. Basque don’t have their own state Economic Anthropology: Making a Living o Economy = the system of labor, capital (wealth or material assets), resources, and exchange that facilitates production and consumption o Involved technological evolution, history and social organization, geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors o Complex combo of social/cultural/environmental/ecological factors • Economic Anthropology o Economic anthropology studies how human societies provide the material goods and services that make life possible o Understanding how production, distribution and consumption take place § What we need and perceive to need o How economic processes and activities create contexts in which people relate to each other in ways that convey power and meaning § How do relations help to structure distribution of power § Look at systems that are not necessarily growing o Advocates a comparative perspective on economic activity o Originally focused on exchange (or reciprocity) as an alternative to market exchange o Originally focused on exchange § Bronislaw Malinowski: functionalist, needs functionalism – role of exchange § Marcel Mauss: “The Gift” – gift giving exchange as alternative to market exchange • “Big Man” o Two main questions: § How are production, distribution, and consumption organized in different societies? § What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute, or exchange, and consume? o Adaptive Strategies § An adaptive strategy is a group’s system of economic production/ their way of “making a living” • Foraging o Hunting, fishing, and gathering o Regional o Marine animals vs large game o Skin, bone, food o Specialized strategy o Vast range vs specific species • Cultivation o Horticulture: nonindustrial plant cultivation § No plows – digging sticks, hoes, etc. § Fallow periods – cultivated land gets to rest § Slash-and-burn • Plant, burn, move on o Agriculture § Irrigation systems § Terracing § Nutrients refund to land through fertilizer or swamp muck • Pastoralism • Industrialism o Industrial Economies § Modes of production: a specific set of social relations that organizes labor § Non industrial societies: economic relations are one component of a continuum of social relations; often kin-based § Industrial societies: workers have impersonal relations with their products, coworkers, and bosses § People sell labor for cash, which is used to purchase the necessities of life • Not necessarily selling the product • Yield is wages § Industrial alienation: people are alienated from the products they make - the product belongs to someone else • No longer taking all the benefits of your work/labor o Exchange § Karl Polyani (1968) – three principles that govern exchange • The market principle o Buying, selling, valuation, capital o Determined by supply and demand o Aim to maximize profit o Governs the distribution of the means of production: land, labor, natural resources • Redistribution o System of economic exchange within a social group intended to alter the distribution of goods o Capital flows to central authority, who then redistributes it o Ex. taxes • Reciprocity o Exchange along various continuums: § Generalized reciprocity: gifts with no expectation of immediate return – personal relationships • Cycles of obligation • Birthday gifts § Balanced reciprocity: explicit expectation of more/less immediate return • Border systems • Purchasing • Ex. Christmas gifts § Negative reciprocity: tricky coercion, hard bargaining; buy something/ offer less than what its worth/ sell something/ offer more than its worth • At the expense of the other • Can involve a minimum amount of trust and maximum social distance; can take place among strangers o The Kuala Ring § Malinowski § Trade between different islands § Closed system only senior male partners could participate in § Dangerous sea voyages for trade • Help bonds between partners § Clockwise: red necklaces § Counter: white shell arm bands § Reinforce friendship and authority o Potlatches, Northwest Coast § Gifts scaled according to your status in society demonstrated to accrued status and reinforced o The Global Economy § Distribution of wealth all over the world
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'