Sex and Gender
Sex and Gender ANTH 1102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Sex and Gender • Nature vs Nurture (biological causality vs cultural causality) Low Biological Causality High Biological Causality High Cultural Causality Cultural determinists Interactionists (integrated (nurture) model) Low Cultural Causality Biological determinists (nature) • Sex vs Gender o Sex: the biological categories of female and male that are differentiated by genes, hormones, and reproductive organs § Relatively constant across cultures § But, the assumption of only two sex categories is problematic § X and Y chromosomes determine genetic sex • 22 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes = 24 chromosomes • female: XX • male: XY • eggs always have XX, sperm has XY à 50% chance each • determined at conception o Gender: social categories differentiated by psychological characteristics and role expectations § Traits and characteristics of genders vary in different cultural contexts § Gender identification varies depending on the individual and cultural context o Intersex: a variation in sex characteristics that do not allow an individual to be distinctly identified as male or female § May be chromosomal or hormonal § Gender identity may be complicated § Intersex chromosomal combinations: • XXY = Kleinfelter’s Syndrome o Affects 1/1000 males o Reduced fertility (genotype) o Small testicles (phenotype) • XXX or XYY = may not be physically distinguishable o Not expressed well phenotypically • XO = Turner’s Syndrome o Girls with this are typically sterile o Missing second x chromosome o Transgender: describes individuals whose gender identity contradicts their biological sex at birth and the gender identity assigned to them in infancy § Umbrella term in anthropology and more in social life § May just identify with different gender that has nothing to do with sex § Ex. Hirjas, India • 3 gender • hirjas: biologically male, identified as female • traditionally males would be emasculated • identify with the Indian mother goddess § Berdache, Native Americans • “A person plus” • may fulfill specialized work roles such as shaman • stronger connection to super natural o Chromosomal difference (XX, XY) is biologically expressed in hormonal and physiological contrasts § Sexual dimorphism • Marked phenotypic differences between males and females of a species • Females: smaller and more gracile • Males: heavier/taller/more robustly built • Humans – less pronounced than our ancestors o Gender roles: the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex § Ex. in 100 human societies, 95% males made stone tools and 5% were the home makers o Gender stereotypes: oversimplified, strongly held views about the characteristics of males and females § Blow roles greatly out of proportion o Gender, Labor, and Adaptive Strategies § Foragers/hunter-gatherers: • Men mainly hunt, women mainly gather, but women may also take game and men may collect non-animal resources • Woman’s labor curtailed in party by child-rearing • Hunting may be linked to prestige § Cultivators • Horticulturalists o Females responsible for crops and have more political power • Agriculturalists o Males responsible for crops/plowing and have more political power o Women divorced from means of production/restricted to domestic realm § Industrial societies in North America • Gendered work, attitudes, and beliefs have varied in response to American economic needs • “Traditional” idea that the woman’s place is in the home developed during the 1950’s o Yet early – late 1800’s: men, women and children all work in factories and are wage earners o Stereotype for women began in the 20 century o Immigrant men take women roles in factory o Women obligation to step aside after war for men to have jobs o Idea for a diamond ring has only been true for about 70 years – create traditions o Gender stratification: unequal distribution of social resources (power and prestige) between men and women o Domestic-public dichotomy: relative value of work within the home (domestic) vs work outside the home (public) o Patriarchy: a political system rules by men – women have an inferior status, can be victims of violence, and treated as property o Matriarchy: where women hold the bulk of political power – significantly less internal violence towards men o Unequal stereotypes of gender roles: § Job appropriateness • Women wages = 60-66% of men’s wages today • Results in: o The feminization of poverty § Women are increasingly the heads of households, yet they’re only earning 77% at most § Paid maternity leave • US Is one of 6 countries without any paid maternity leave § Stereotypes • Raised from birth to have different perceptions of valuable traits of genders • Groomed to have a role • Hyper sexualized – Barbie • Violence – geared toward boys (guns and war) • Male = gender neutral Female = female § Feminizing the masculine and masculinizing the feminine: • Ex. pink sport’s jerseys, pens for her, pink guns • Ex. Tough men yogurt, tissues for men, male candles Biological sex =/= gender identity =/= gender expression =/= sexual orientation à None determine the other – only a relational field
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