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Sex Hormones

by: Brittany Woody

Sex Hormones PSB4504

Brittany Woody

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Lecture and PowerPoint notes for PowerPoint 13
Developmental Psychobiology
Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSB4504 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 04/11/16
PowerPoint 13 Sex Hormones - Definitions of sex (gender) can be genetic, gonadal, hormonal, morphological, behavioral (gender role behavior), identity - Sexual dimorphism: phenotypic differences between males and females; can be anatomical, physiological, behavioral, cognitive; qualitative or quantitative - Effects of sex hormones: • organizational: structural, sensitive period, irreversible, masculinization/ defeminization • activational Effects: act on existing structure, no sensitive period, reversible - Bipotential tissues: undifferentiated tissue that can differentiate into either a male or female form - Castrate male hamster at birth: before period of brain differentiation, test in adulthood • inject with testosterone, place with receptive female: male-typical behavior low mounting, intromission (ejaculation not possible) • inject with estrogen and progesterone, place with male: female-typical behavior high; darting, ear-wiggling, lordosis (arching of back) - Neuter female hamster at birth and inject with testosterone: before period of brain differentiation, test in adulthood • inject with testosterone, place with receptive female: male typical behavior high (mounting) • inject with estrogen and progesterone, place with male: female-typical behavior low (ear-wiggling, darting, lordosis) - Differentiation of the brain: two processes, both dependent on fetal androgens • masculinization: induction of male characteristics • defeminization: suppression of female characteristics - Estradiol is the sex hormone primarily responsible for the masculinization of the brain. 1 - alpha-fetoprotein binds to estradiol extracellularly and prevents entry into the cell in females - In rats, a female embryo that develops between two male embryos is exposed to more testosterone than is a female embryo that develops between two female embryos - High concentrations of estradiol receptors are found in the pituitary and hypothalamus, including the pre-optic area of the anterior hypothalamus; these areas are involved in sexual and reproductive behaviors - HPA axis (AKA LHPA axis): the limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands; controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage and expenditure - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands - Newborn girls with CAH: genitalia masculinized; gender role masculinized; cognition higher than female norm; orientation is heterosexual with an increased prevalence of lesbianism - SAT given to 7th and 8th graders; boys= girls on verbal section; boys do better than girls on math; highest score every year is a male • measure of ability not achievement: students were tested on concepts not yet covered in school • differences cannot be attributed to differential courses, social conditioning, or math anxiety • fewer girls accepted an offer of accelerated training and more girls dropped out; afraid to different, did not like boys in the program • studies only used top 3% of students - Left half of brain controls: right hand, logical thinking, language ability, writing, science and math work 2 - Right half controls: left hand, musical and artistic ability, perception of space, imagination and fantasizing, body control and awareness - Geschwind’s theory of cerebral lateralization: differences in maturation rates between the cerebral hemispheres are mediated by circulating testosterone levels, and sexual maturation acts to fix the hemispheres at different relative stages of development after puberty; male brains mature later than females, and the left hemisphere matures later than the right - During flow phase of menstrual cycle: perform well on verbal skills and motor tasks but poorly on spatial tasks - During ovulation: perform well on spatial tasks but poorly on motor and verbal tasks - Size of central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is related to sexual identity but not to sexual orientation 3


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