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04/05 Conditioning

by: Alex Notetaker

04/05 Conditioning CBNS 126

Alex Notetaker

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About this Document

Essential concepts that need to be learned for the course.
Learning and Memory
Dr. Korzus
Class Notes
neuroscience, learning, memory
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Notetaker on Monday April 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBNS 126 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Korzus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Neuroscience at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 04/11/16
04/05     Brief Recap of CBNS 106    Neurons ­ Approximately 100 billion  Glia ­ 10x more than neurons    Golgi stain ­ Shows two parts of neurons  ­Soma   ­A.K.A. cell body  ­Neurites  ­A.K.A. axons and dendrites    Conditioning  Associative Learning  ­Classical Conditioning​  (Think Ivan Pavlov)  ­Operant Conditioning​  (Think Instrumental Conditioning or [J. Konorski, E. Thorndike, B.F.  Skinner])    Classical Conditioning  ­Famous example is Pavlov’s Dog Experiment  ­{CS} Conditioned Stimulus (One that is not innate, taught and will be learned): Bell sound  ­{US}Unconditioned Stimulus (Innate, not learned): Food  ­Unconditioned Response (Response that does not need to be taught) to said {US}: Salivation  ­Conditioned Response: Salivation to the Conditional Stimulus    Before Conditioning  ­Pavlov’s dog does not respond at all to the sound of the bell.  ­Through ringing the bell and subsequently serving the food, the dog began to associate the bell  with the arrival of food.    After Conditioning  ­Pavlov’s dog began to salivate at the sound of the bell.    Operant Conditioning (A.K.A. Instrumental Conditioning or Type II Conditioned Reflexes) is a  process by which humans and animals learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and  avoid punishments.  ­Subjects learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and avoid punishments.  ­Essentially, actions lead to either rewards or consequences.  ­EX: Subjects learn to associate a motor act with a response.  ­Rats learn to press a level that will grant them a food reward.  ­Operant Conditioning shows the importance of motivation, proving that operant conditioning  involves very complex neurological circuits and pathways in the brain.    Other Types of Classical Conditioning  Fear Conditioning  ­Very similar to Pavlov’s example  ­Conditioned Stimulus ­ A simple tone.  ­Unconditioned Stimulus (Innate, will evoke a response no matter what [basically a stimulus  evoking a reflex]) ­ A shock  Goal: T​ one {CS} ­> Causes subject to freeze {CR}  Part of brain affected: Amygdala (Emotions)    *Usually the conditioned and unconditioned responses are the same. However, the context is  different. The unconditioned response is oftentimes a reflex response (such as flinching or  clammy hands), the conditioned response is the same response, but this time not so much a reflex  as it is a response to what the conditioned stimulus is associated with. If scientists were to ring a  bell and subsequently deliver a shock, the subject will associate the shock with the bell noise.  From then on, the conditioned response would be freezing up to the bell sound, even if a shock  did not follow afterwards.    Eyeblink Conditioning  ­Same concept as fear conditioning, but with an eyeblink as a response.  ­CS ­ Tone  ­US ­ Puff of air to eye  Goal:​ Tone {CS} ­> Eyeblink {CR}  Part of brain affected: Cerebellum (Motor)    Famous Example    Seymour Benzer and Drosophila (Fruitflies)    The experiment tested flies for learning and memory. This classical conditioning experiment  separated normal flies with mutant flies that have a learning mutation. The mutant flies had a  deficiency in the PKA signaling pathway, which inhibited their learning. Benzer paired a shock  with an odor to see if the flies would move away from that specific chamber. The control group  (containing normal flies) were able to learn and quickly move to another chamber, while the  mutant flies had a normal distribution between the shock chamber and the normal chamber.       


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